Herpes Simplex Keratitis and Dendritic Cells at the Crossroads

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
International Ophthalmology Clinics 02/2009; 49(1):53-62. DOI: 10.1097/IIO.0b013e3181924dd8
Source: PubMed
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    • "Nevertheless, due to the accelerated and enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity response induced by mature DCs, the number of mature DCs present in the central cornea has been shown to correlate with the degree of corneal damage [34]. Similar to the inflammatory disorders, the maturation stage of corneal DCs in autoimmune keratopathies has also been proved abnormal [35]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The peripheral cornea contains mature and immature resident dendritic cells (DCs) while the central cornea is exclusively equipped with immature DCs. There must be some factors that cause immature DCs. This study investigated whether corneal stroma cells (CSCs) inhibit DC maturation by secreting cytokines. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein level of transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β(2)) was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immature DCs were induced to mature in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and with concentrations of CSC culture supernatant (containing and not containing neutralizing TGF-β(2) antibodies). Then, the DC phenotypic and functional maturation were analyzed. CSCs exhibited positive expressions of TGF-β(2) mRNA and secreted high concentrations of TGF-β(2) protein. In the presence of LPS, DCs, which were treated with a CSC culture supernatant, displayed reduced expressions of cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80), CD86, and major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, treated DCs showed lower T-cell stimulation capacity and a higher endocytosis function. However, these phenotypic and functional modifications were partially reversed after the application of neutralizing TGF-β(2) antibodies. This study demonstrates that CSCs can partially inhibit LPS-induced DC maturation through TGF-β(2) secretion in vitro.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine corneal sensitivity to selective mechanical, chemical, and thermal (heat and cold) stimulation in patients with a history of herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis. Corneal sensitivity to different modalities of stimulus was determined in both eyes of 16 patients with unilateral HSV keratitis diagnosed 1 to 12 months before the study. On slit lamp examination, 13 HSV-affected eyes showed corneal scarring or opacities, and three had no signs of previous keratitis. Corneal sensitivity was determined with the Belmonte gas esthesiometer. Mechanical, chemical, heat, and cold stimuli were applied on the central cornea. Eyes from 10 healthy subjects served as controls. In all control and contralateral eyes, selective mechanical, chemical, heat, and cold stimulation evoked sensations of subjective intensity proportional to the magnitude of the applied stimulus. In one HSV patient, the affected cornea was unresponsive to all types of stimuli, four lost only corneal sensitivity to mechanical stimulation, and three lost only sensitivity to heat. Mechanical (P<0.005) and heat (P<0.05) thresholds were raised in HSV eyes, whereas thresholds for CO2 were not modified. Also, HSV subjects identified poorly the intensity of mechanical, chemical, and heat stimuli, whereas sensitivity to cold stimulation was unaffected. In eyes that had had HSV keratitis, corneal sensitivity to mechanical forces and heat was significantly impaired, suggesting that axonal damage and/or altered expression of membrane ion channels involved in transduction and membrane excitability affects primarily the mechano- and polymodal nociceptor terminals. Corneal cold-sensitive terminals remain largely unaffected.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 04/2010; 51(9):4516-22. DOI:10.1167/iovs.10-5225 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Imaging of the retinal complications of diabetes mellitus is rapidly changing from the emergence of new technology such as optical coherence tomography. In particular, the characterization of diabetic macular edema is much easier for the clinician and there are new, more sensitive clinical research end points. However, our understanding of structure-functional relationships remains suboptimal and the classification of macular edema by optical coherence tomography continues to evolve. The classification of diabetic retinopathy severity continues to rely upon fundus photography, although the transition from film to digital photography presents both challenges and advantages.
    Current Diabetes Reports 05/2011; 11(4):236-43. DOI:10.1007/s11892-011-0203-1 · 3.08 Impact Factor
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