Risk behaviour, sexually transmitted infections and HIV among long-distance truck drivers: a cross-sectional survey along national highways in India.

National Institute of Medical Statistics, Indian Council of Medical Research, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.
AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 6.56). 01/2009; 22 Suppl 5:S81-90. DOI: 10.1097/01.aids.0000343766.00573.15
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To report HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and sexual behaviour of long-distance truckers on four national highway routes from a large, cross-sectional, national-level trucker survey in India.
Seven trans-shipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes, north-west (NW), north-south (NS), north-east (NE) and south-east (SE) were identified as survey sites. A total of 2066 long-distance truckers were selected using a two-stage, time-location cluster sampling approach and, after consent, interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Urine and blood sample were tested for selected STIs.
Overall, HIV prevalence among truckers was found to be 4.6%, with prevalence highest on the SE route (6.8%) and lowest on the NS (2.4%). Positive HSV-2 serology, which was tested in a 10% subsample, was low along three routes, 10.0%, 12.8% and 6.7% for the NE, NS and NW, respectively, but 38.7% in the SE. The truckers from the SE were found to be more likely to have sex with paid partners than the NE route. Moreover, truckers who owned their trucks were more likely than those who did not use condoms consistently with paid partners, and truckers who drive trucks owned by their relatives/friends are more likely than others to have any STI.
Low self-risk perception for HIV (9.9%), low consistent condom use with non-paid partners (18.6%) and wives (3%), low reported exposure to any interventions (25.6%) and low levels of ever having taken an HIV test (16.5%) make truckers an important bridge population requiring strengthened interventions.


Available from: Arvind Pandey, May 25, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is important to know about patterns of sexual behaviors among married couples in order to develop effective HIV prevention strategies for them. Herein we describe the sexual behaviors, estimate prevalence of anal intercourse (AI) among truck drivers ("truckers") and their wives, and determine partner-specific demographic and behavioral correlates of AI. We carried out a cluster-sampled cross-sectional survey among 18-49 year-old wives and their trucker husbands in a south Indian district. Data were collected by same-gender research team members with color-coded computer-assisted interviews. We used random intercept logistic regression to identify the independent correlates of AI. Thirteen percent of 475 wives and 467 truckers reported ever having AI with their spouse. Of those who responded, 55 % of 40 wives and 47 % of 36 truckers never used condoms during AI. Of those who responded, 22 of 32 wives and 24 of 32 husbands felt that condoms were unnecessary during AI. Reporting ever having AI was associated with younger age and higher education of both husband and wife. AI reported by wives was associated with having sexual partner(s) other than husband (adjusted OR 8.8 [95 % CI 3.2-24.0]), correctly answering all HIV knowledge items (adjusted OR 4.9 [95 % CI 1.9-12.5]), husband's sexual debut occurring before marriage (adjusted OR 1.9 [95 % CI 1.0-3.5]), and husband's high HIV risk perception (adjusted OR 2.5 [95 % CI 1.2-5.4]). AI reported by truckers was associated with having sex with a male or transgender (adjusted OR 4.0 [95 % CI 1.2-13.3]). Reported prevalence of AI was high considering that in India anal sex is non-normative, heavily stigmatized and, criminal. Indian heterosexual mobile populations need to be informed about the greater risk of HIV infection consequent to unprotected AI.
    Archives of Sexual Behavior 09/2014; 44(2). DOI:10.1007/s10508-014-0358-3 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The World Bank and UNDP have proposed that migration and mobility facilitate economic development. Yet the epidemiological and public health literature has often associated migration and population mobility with the extension and intensification of infectious diseases, most recently epitomised by the AIDS pandemic. Within the context of the well-documented negative developmental impact of AIDS, this suggests a potential clash in perspectives on the role of migration. However, if insights from public health can be incorporated into broader development perspectives, it may be possible to realise the developmental benefits of migration while mitigating or avoiding any associated health concerns.
    Journal of Development Studies 06/2013; 49(6). DOI:10.1080/00220388.2012.746669 · 0.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper examines whether truckers have been over-stigmatized as HIV carriers in the country. Data were taken from cross-sectional surveys of clients of female sex workers conducted in 2006- 2007 in 12 districts of the country. A total 4822 clients of female sex workers were covered in the survey. Low-income skilled/semi-skilled men, including non-agricultural/casual labor, and petty businessmen/small shop owners, have the largest share in the clients’ population. There was no significant difference between truckers and other sub-group of clients’ population in terms of consistent condom use with female sex workers and prevalence of HIV or STI. These evidences suggest that the contribution of truckers in HIV epidemic in India might to similar to other sub-groups of clients’ population. Thus, truckers might have been over-stigmatized as HIV carriers in the country. However, there is no doubt that truckers constitute an extremely important target group for the HIV prevention programs and these efforts must be continued to prevent new HIV infections in the country.
    Open Journal of Preventive Medicine 03/2015; 05(03). DOI:10.4236/ojpm.2015.53010