Oat Bran Fermentation by Rye Sourdough
ABSTRACT Cereal Chem. 79(3):345-348 Hydration of oat bran including fermentation by rye sourdough was studied. Three types of oat bran suspensions were prepared (a control, one with whole meal rye flour added, and one with rye starter added). The suspensions were incubated for 1, 2, 3 and 4 hr. β-Glucan content and solubilities of protein and β-glucan were analyzed. Viscosity of the super- natants of oat bran suspensions was determined. Neither the rye sour- dough nor the rye flour alone had a significant effect on the total β- glucan content of oat bran suspensions. However, the addition of rye, either as whole meal rye flour or as sourdough starter, markedly increased the solubility of β-glucan and proteins and simultaneously decreased the viscosity of the water-soluble fraction of oat bran suspension. This sug- gests that a hydrolysis of β-glucan had occurred that could change the rheological properties of oat bran in baking and the physiological potential of oat bran in nutrition. Bread rich in oat bran is a potential daily source of soluble fiber which in oat bran is mainly (1→3)(1→4)-β-D-glucan, referred to as β-glucan. However, when using bran in baking, the rigid fiber particles of bran disturb the formation of the gluten-protein matrix (Gan et al 1989). To reduce this disturbing effect, the bran particles can be softened by hydration, thus enabling enzymatic function. Oat bran itself should be enzymatically inactive because of the kiln- drying treatment performed in the milling process. Nevertheless, hy- drating might risk activating micro-organisms and hydrolysis of β- glucan. In baking, micro-organisms such as bacilli and molds can be controlled by lowering the pH level (adding acids or by lactic acid fermentation). In oat bran baking, lactic acid fermentation would prevent harmful microbial growth and would also provide flavor to the bread. Sourdough starter could be used in oat bran hydration, especially in countries where sour rye bread is pro- duced and bakeries keep their own rye sourdough starter on hand. However, the rye sourdough starter also contains enzymes such as the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes of rye flour. These could affect the properties of the oat polysaccharides and protein. In rye baking, rye flour components in the sourdough undergo considerable change involving swelling, solubilization, and partial hydrolysis, and the breakdown products have an important role as flavor compo- nents. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to determine the effect of oat bran fermentation by rye starter on the soluble β-glucan and protein contents in oat bran suspensions and on the viscosity prop- erties of the solubles; and 2) to evaluate the potential for β-glucan hydrolysis by the rye flour and by rye sourdough. MATERIALS AND METHODS Commercial oat bran (Melia Ltd, Raisio) was used in this study. The oat bran was ground with a laboratory pin-mill KT-30 (Koneteol- lisuus Oy, Helsinki). The particle size distribution was obtained by sieving the milled oat bran (50 g) through sieves (1.6, 1, 0.71, 0.4, 0.2) for 10 min on a laboratory Bühler-Miag sieve (Braunschweig 1977). Most of the oat bran particles (85%) were retained on apertures of 1.6 to 0.4 mm. Amounts retained by sieves 1.0, 0.71, and 0.4 were 27.4, 26.8, and 30.5%, respectively. Only 1% of oat bran particles were >1.6 mm. The remaining two fractions retained by the 0.2-mm sieve and passed through the sieve were 8.5 and 6.7%, respectively.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to compare and evaluate for quality characteristics and ß-glucan analysis during different stages of the oat flour and/or oat bran based bread baking process. Design/methodology/approach ‐ A 100 per cent wheat flour (WF) formulation was substituted with 30, 50 and 70 per cent oat flour (OF) or oat bran (OB) to improve its nutritional quality characteristics of bread. The flour blends were evaluated for quality characteristics (loaf volume, texture profile analysis) and ß-glucan analysis during different stages of the bread baking process. Findings ‐ A significant decrease in specific volume, number of cells and crumb brightness was observed with increasing WF substitution levels with OF or OB. The crumb hardness was observed to be negatively correlated with specific volume of OF (r =-0.90, p0.0001) and OB (r =-0.84, p0.0001) bread. The level of ß-glucan was significantly reduced by 37.8 -42.9 per cent in dough during 45?min fermentation time, which indicating the enzymatic action. The ß-glucan content of OF and OB bread was found to increase from 0.13?g/100?g bread (db) (control) to 1.35 and 3.61?g ß-glucan/100?g bread (db) for 70 per cent WF substitution with OF and OB, respectively. Results show that a bread of acceptable quality can be prepared by substituting WF by up to 50 per cent for OF and up to 30 per cent by OB. Practical implications ‐ Replacing white bread with oat flour/bran containing ß-glucan facilitates human consumption of soluble dietary fibre. Originality/value ‐ The paper provides a comparative evaluation of the oat flour and/or bran based bread and its critical factors influencing the level of ß-glucan during baking process, which attributes to improve the nutritional quality.British Food Journal 02/2013; 115(2). · 0.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A tension stiffening model is presented which enables the calculation of average tensile stresses in concrete, after yielding of reinforcement, in reinforced concrete elements subjected to uniaxial tension, shear or flexure. To determine the average tensile stress–strain relationship for concrete, a crack analysis approach is employed taking into account the bond mechanism between concrete and deformed reinforcing bars, and numerical analyses are conducted to determine the tensile behavior of reinforced concrete members including post-yield response. Analytical parametric studies are conducted to determine the influence of various parameters including concrete compressive strength and reinforcement yield strength, ultimate strength, hardening stress, and hardening strain. Analysis results obtained from the proposed model, when compared to experimental results for uniaxial members, indicate good agreement for structural behavior after yielding of reinforcement. The proposed model makes it possible to accurately calculate reinforcement stresses at crack locations and, thus, average strain conditions which result in rupture of reinforcement. This leads to more realistic predictions of the uniaxial, flexural, and shear ductility of reinforced concrete members.Engineering Structures 05/2011; 33(5):1723-1733. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oat β-glucan is a dietary fibre with solid and well evidenced health benefits. Its beneficial properties, however, largely depend on its molecular properties and processing history. In this study, the cleavage of oat β-glucan in heat treatments (95°C and 120°C) and role of oxidative reactions were investigated in highly purified β-glucan solution and in β-glucan extracts of oat bran. Both viscosity and molar mass decreased during the heat-treatments, and the degradation was more intensive in the extract solutions with co-extracted phytates, proteins, minerals and other compounds. Oxidative reactions, most likely Fenton chemistry, played a role in the degradation, since oxidative free radicals and hydrogen peroxide were formed during the heating, and the addition of an oxidation catalyst (Fe2+-ions) accelerated the thermal degradation. Inhibition of the oxidative reactions by antioxidants appeared to be challenging; for example, ascorbic acid alone accelerated the thermal degradation of β-glucan, but its use with sulfite slowed down the rate of thermal degradation.Carbohydrate Polymers 06/2011; 85(3):645-652. · 3.92 Impact Factor