MOLECULAR-SCALE ORGANIC ELECTROLUMINESCENCE FROM TUNNEL JUNCTIONS
ABSTRACT We report the generation and detection of bipolar organic electroluminescence of porphyrin molecules from a nanoscale junction in an ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Clear molecular fluorescence from porphyrin molecules near metal substrates has been realized through highly localized electrical excitation of molecules in proximity to a sharp tip apex. The molecular origin of the luminescence, arising from the highest occupied molecular orbital–lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO–LUMO) radiative transitions of neutral molecules, is clearly established by the observed well-defined vibrationally resolved fluorescence spectra that match perfectly with conventional photoluminescence data from molecular thin films. The molecules fluoresce at low onset voltages for both bias polarities, presenting an example of bipolar organic electroluminescence at the nanoscale. Such bipolar operation suggests a double-barrier model for electron transport, with hot electron injection into unoccupied states of molecules in both polarities. The optical behavior of molecules in the tunnel junction is also found sensitive to the electronic properties of molecules and energy level alignment at the interface. These results offer new information to the optoelectronic behavior of molecules in a nanoscopic environment and may open up new routes to the development of single-molecule science and molecular scale electronics.
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ABSTRACT: Zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) was modified by a push-pull strategy and then density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were performed for the resulting derivatives. The smallest HOMO-LUMO energy gaps were found in ZnTPP-6 and ZnTPP-7, which had nitro substituents and a conjugated chain, while the largest was observed for ZnTPP-5. The energy gaps of all of the systems designed in this work were smaller than that of ZnTPP. Clear intramolecular charge transfer was observed from donor to acceptor in ZnTPP-6 and ZnTPP-7, which had nitro groups at positions R8, R9, and R10, as well as in ZnTPP-3 and ZnTPP-4, which had cyano groups at those positions. The narrow band gaps (compared to that of ZnTPP) of these designed systems, where the LUMO is above the conduction band of TiO(2) and the HOMO is below the redox couple, indicate that they are efficient sensitizers. The B bands of these newly designed derivatives, except for ZnTPP-5, are redshifted compared with the B band of ZnTPP.Journal of Molecular Modeling 05/2012; 18(9):4199-207. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Zinc meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) was modified in such a way to allow the effect of an asymmetric structural distortion on its optical properties to be investigated. This involved the fusion of a phenyl group to an adjacent pyrrole ring via a carbonyl bridge. With the aid of Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations it was found that the asymmetric distortion away from planarity induced by the carbonyl fusion resulted in a loss of degeneracy in the two lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs). The effect was a red shift of the electronic absorbance bands, an increased Q:B ratio from 0.046 in ZnTPP to 0.096 in the fused derivative, and the appearance of additional UV-vis peaks. This study therefore suggests that structural distortions, as well as electronic substituents may be used to alter absorbance spectra, a technique which is of interest in the design of light-harvesting dyes.Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 09/2009; 74(4):931-5. · 2.13 Impact Factor