Research review paper Xanthan gum: production, recovery, and properties
ABSTRACT Xanthan gum is a microbial polysaccharide of great commercial significance. This review focuses on various aspects of xanthan production, including the producing organism Xanthomonas campestris, the kinetics of growth and production, the downstream recovery of the polysaccharide, and the solution properties of xanthan. D 2000 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: A nutritional study of Xanthomonas campestris in the production of xanthan gum was carried out by factorial design and analysis of experiments. The concentrations of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfur were studied by means of a factorial design at two levels, reduced to a half with four central points for error estimation. Three responses were considered, corresponding to biomass, sucrose, and xanthan concentrations, at four different times: 12, 16, 20, and 24 h. The influence of nitrogen, phosphorus, and magnesium on the biomass, and the influence of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur on xanthan production, were significant, although any variable influenced sucrose consumption. An optimized medium was proposed for xanthan production.Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 01/1992;
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ABSTRACT: Various biomass (X), product (P), and substrate (S) rate equations are considered in order to synthesize a general xanthan fermentation model from literature data. Analytical forms that provide reasonable descriptions for the X, P, and S behaviors reported by Moraine and Rogovin are shown to be the logistic equation, the Luedeking–Piret equation a modified Luedeking-Piret equation, respectively. The autonomous logistic equation allows the serial evaluation of parameters for all thee equations, rather than a simultaneous determination required by nonautonomous models.Biotechnology and Bioengineering 03/1980; 22(4):859 - 873. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Xanthan gum is a heteropolysaccharide synthesized by Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459 and is composed of D-glucose, D-mannose, and D-glucuronic acid, in addition to acetic and pyruvic acids. Different amounts of pyruvic acid ketal are found in various preparations which can influence the viscosities of dilute xanthan solutions. Polysaccharide production on synthetic media was studied in small-scale fermentors. Fermentation conditions were established for production of both high and low pyruvic acid gums (about 4 and 2% pyruvic acid, respectively). Low nitrogen [0.1% (NH4)2HPO4] and air (0.25 vol/liter/min) levels favor production of low pyruvate gum; increasing (NH4)2HPO4 to 0.15%, adding K2HPO4, and increasing the air flow to 1.5 vol/liter/min favored production of normal gum. Both processes gave xanthan yields of 50 to 60%, based on 2.5% initial D-glucose substrate, in two to three days. Differences in pyruvic acid content and in the quantity of gum produced under a given set of conditions were attributed to strain variability. Substrains were isolated that have desirable characteristics for production of xanthan gum; i.e., the ability to give good yields of high-pyruvate gum when grown on both complex and synthetic media.Biotechnology and Bioengineering 02/2004; 20(7):1003 - 1014. · 3.65 Impact Factor