Research review paper Xanthan gum: production, recovery, and properties
ABSTRACT Xanthan gum is a microbial polysaccharide of great commercial significance. This review focuses on various aspects of xanthan production, including the producing organism Xanthomonas campestris, the kinetics of growth and production, the downstream recovery of the polysaccharide, and the solution properties of xanthan. D 2000 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k L a) is an important parameter in bioreactors handling viscous fermentations such as xanthan gum production, as it affects the reactor performance and productivity. Published literatures showed that adding an organic phase such as hydrocarbons or vegetable oil could increase the k L a. The present study opted for palm oil as the organic phase as it is plentiful in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of viscosity, gas holdup, and k L a on the xanthan solution with different palm oil fractions by varying the agitation rate and aeration rate in a 5 L bench-top bioreactor fitted with twin Rushton turbines. Results showed that 10% (v/v) of palm oil raised the k L a of xanthan solution by 1.5 to 3 folds with the highest k L a value of 84.44 h(-1). It was also found that palm oil increased the gas holdup and viscosity of the xanthan solution. The k L a values obtained as a function of power input, superficial gas velocity, and palm oil fraction were validated by two different empirical equations. Similarly, the gas holdup obtained as a function of power input and superficial gas velocity was validated by another empirical equation. All correlations were found to fit well with higher determination coefficients.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:409675.
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ABSTRACT: Conformational changes of xanthan gum as a function of concentration were investigated to elucidate its unusual flux behavior during ultrafiltration (UF). The contribution of hydrogen bonding on structure formation and the molecular orientation of xanthan gum on the flow characteristics were studied rheomechanically and rheo-optically. Known to affect xanthan structure at low concentrations, hydrogen bonding unexpectedly did not show significant influence on xanthan rheological properties up to 2 wt %. The ordered layers formed on the membrane surface proved responsible for the enhanced water removal during UF. This unique behavior could be attributed to the formation of aligned molecular orientation in addition to the viscosity increases during the biphasic region. Significant differences were observed between xanthan fermentation broth and solutions made of commercial xanthan, suggesting the need to control the salt concentration in fermentation broth in order to make UF an effective recovery process for xanthan gum after fermentation.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSThe knowledge gained from the present study strengthens fundamental understandings on the conformational changes of xanthan biopolymers during the recovery of xanthan gum from fermentation broth using ultrafiltration (UF). By taking advantage of the aligned molecular orientation, along with controlling the salt concentration in the fermentation broth, UF could be operated at elevated flux to speed up the removal of water from the viscous fermentation broth. The technology should find broad applications in the fermentation industry, especially where viscosity is of concern during the separation and purification of the product.Journal of Food Process Engineering 09/2009; 32(5):623 - 644. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MesoDyn density functional simulation method is used to study the interactions between dodecyl oxypropyl β-hydroxyltrimethylammonium bromide (C12NBr) and Xanthan (XC). The micro dynamic process of aggregate formation and the aggregate morphology are reported. Interaction between XC and nonyphenyloxypropyl β-hydroxyltrimethylammonium bromide (C9phNBr) is compared with that between XC and C12NBr. Simulation results show that the aggregate morphology of XC/C12NBr and XC/C9phNBr is of rod-like shape with helix characteristic. The binding of C9phNBr to XC is more difficult than that of C12NBr to XC. In addition, three stages for the dynamic evolution of surfactant binding to XC are observed. The simulation results agree with binding isotherms of C9phNBr (C12NBr) to XC obtained via the potentiometric titration method, which shows a typical cooperative binding between C9phNBr (C12NBr) and XC.Chinese Science Bulletin 09/2007; 52(19):2605-2611. · 1.32 Impact Factor