ELI SOMA IŞIKLAR DESANDRESİNDE KARŞILAŞILAN SORUNLAR, DENENEN TAHKİMAT ŞEKİLLERİ VE ÇÖZÜM ÖNERİLERİ The Problems Encountered in ELİ Soma Işiklar Inclined Shaft, Applied Support Systems and Solution Recommendations


Tertiary pressures during the construction of tunnel are generated by rocks which increase their volumes with physical and chemical reactions. The main problems in supporting an underground opening where the formations mainly consist of clay minerals with very high rate of swelling properties, are excessive pressures generated by swelling, deformation and thus support failures. This paper is concerned with the instability problems faced at a wince opened in claystone with high swelling capacity for ELI Işiklar Underground Project. Mechanical properties of surrounding claystone were determined by a detailed laboratory testing program. Support systems applied upto date were analyzed and necessary precautions that should be taken to maintain stability are briefly presented.

44 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Design and construction of tunnels in swelling rock may be considered to be a matter of choosing the right tunnel cross-sectional form and the appropriate excavation methods and sequences. Experience, i. e. empirical knowledge, no doubt plays a fundamental role in tunnelling and even more so in tunnelling in swelling rock formations. However, the design engineer needs some tools to analyze the forces which are transmitted from the swelling rock to the tunnel lining in a given case. These tools may provide approximations of the real behavior. However, approximate quantitative indications are very valuable in order to supplement the mentioned empirical knowledge. The analysis method given in the paper is meant to provide such a tool for circular tunnels in swelling rock of the reversible type (swelling of clay minerals). The main approximation of the method is the consequent use of the theory of elasticity as framework for the specific swelling calculations. Since the widely used oedometer swelling test until now is also interpreted using the theory of elasticity, the analysis method is compatible with the kind of assessment of the swelling parameters.The main advantage of the method, however, is its relative simplicity because it may be used quite similarly to the method of characteristic lines. In principle, the method could be transformed into an elasto-plastic approach. As long as the greatest uncertainty of the design methods, however, lies in the right choice of the swelling parameters, a too complicated analysis method is hardly beneficial. For complex cases, where the geometrical boundary conditions may not allow the use of a circular tunnel model, it is advisable to use finite element solutions which are available for swelling calculations in the elasto-plastic formulation straight away.
    Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 01/1987; 20(4):219-242. DOI:10.1007/BF01024643 · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Floor failure and excessive heave in underground coal mines can jeopardize the stability of the whole structure, including the roof and pillars, due to differential settlements and redistribution of stress concentrations. Besides, floor failure is detrimental to haulageway operation and can lead to unacceptable conditions of high deformation. Thus, the design of any underground opening must consider roof/pillar and floor as one structural system.This paper presents guidelines for the design of mine floors, including the necessary field and laboratory investigations and the determination of the bearing capacity of floor strata. The design methodology is based essentially on a modified Hoek-Brown rock mass strength criterion. The main modifications are the introduction of the concept of the point of critical energy release to account for the long term strength, the inclusion of tensile strength and the adoption of a lithostatic state of stress in the rock mass. The determination of the dimensionless parametersm ands result from correlations with the RMR (rock mass rating) of the Geomechanics Clasification. Nine case histories, both in longwall and room and pillar coal mining, were analyzed with the proposed methodology.
    Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 09/1989; 22(4):249-271. DOI:10.1007/BF01262282 · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A Contribution to the Design of a Tunnel Lining in Swelling RockThe paper is representing a possible approach for designing tunnel linings for conditions of swelling rock submitted to general primary rock stress distributions. The method is based on the rock swelling parameters and the swelling curve which are assessed in oedometer swelling tests. Hence the proposed design method itself has to make allowance for this. The elastic swelling analysis for circular tunnel linings is followed by an elasto-plastic approach for randomly shaped tunnel cross sections. In addition test results of rock mechanical properties of some swelling rock varieties are given in order to understand more clearly the specific features of swelling rock material.Berechnungsmethode fr Tunnelverkleidungen in quellendem GesteinDie vorliegende Arbeit stellt eine mgliche Berechnungsmethode von Tunnelverkleidungen in quellendem Gebirge dar, das unter einem beliebigen dreidimensionalen primren Gebirgsspannungszustand stehen mag. Die Methode basiert auf den Quellparametern und der Quellkurve, die durch Oedometer-Quellversuche bestimmt werden. Daher hat das Berechnungsverfahren den Unterschieden zwischen den Spannungszustnden im Oedometer und im Gebirge Rechnung zu tragen. Ein auf der Elastizittstheorie aufbauendes Verfahren fr kreisfrmige Tunnelverkleidungen wird durch einen elastoplastischen Ansatz fr beliebig geformte Tunnelquerschnitte ergnzt. Eine Zusammenstellung der felsmechanischen Kennwerte einiger untersuchter quellender Gesteinstypen ist in die Arbeit eingebaut, um die Wesensart dieser Gesteine nher zu beleuchten.Mthode de calcul de revtement de tunnels dans une roche gonflanteL'expos ci-dessous prsente une mthode d'analyse statique de revtements de tunnels dans une masse rocheuse gonflant sous l'effet d'un tat de contraintes primaire tridimensionnel. La mthode est base sur des paramtres de gonflement et sur la courbe de gonflement tant dtermins l'aide d'essais de gonflement oedomtriques. C'est pour cela que la mthode propose doit tenir compte des diffrences entre les tats de contraintes reignants dans l'oedomtre et in situ. La mthode d'analyse base sur la thorie d'lasticit pour des profils-types circulaires est complmente par une formulation elastoplastique pour des profils-types quelconques. Un tableau synoptique donnant les proprits mcaniques de quelques varits de roches gonflantes bases sur des essais est incorpor dans l'expos afin de prciser le comportement mcanique des roches gonflantes.
    Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 11/1977; 10(1):55-71. DOI:10.1007/BF01261802 · 2.42 Impact Factor


44 Reads
Available from