Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention levels

Source: RePEc

ABSTRACT Entrepreneurship is becoming a very relevant instrument to promote economic growth and development in different regional and national economies. However, social scientists have not still agreed on the determinants of the decision to become an entrepreneur. Therefore, there is some concern that policies may not be sufficiently efficient in achieving this objective. From a psychological point of view, the intention to become an entrepreneur has been described as the single best predictor of actual behaviour (Ajzen, 1991; Kolvereid, 1996). Hence, some studies have started to analyse the entrepreneurial intention and its determinants (Krueger et al., 2000) but however, methodologies and research instruments used so far differ widely. Then, the availability of a validated instrument to measure abilities, attitudes and intentions towards entrepreneurship could be of much help. In this paper, we use an Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ), which has been recently validated, to measure entrepreneurial intentions in a sample of students from different Spanish universities. After a brief description of the characteristics and psychometric properties of the EIQ, most important results are discussed. In particular, we pay attention to the influence of different personal and family variables on the entrepreneurial intention level. These variables could be considered as belonging to the institutional environment of each territory. Differences in institutions -in a broad sense- may be a very relevant factor to explain divergent entrepreneurial activity levels. Results show how these external variables affect intention and, as a result actual entrepreneurial behaviour.


Available from: Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Cohard, Jun 08, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Sub Theme: Life Long Learning and Skills Development for Sustainable Entrepreneurial Development. Objectives: To identify what are the factors that can be used for strengthening the entrepreneurial intention in students. Theoretical Background/Previous Practice: This paper is partly based on my previous paper called the relationship of resilience and entrepreneurial intention which was done between students and employees. This research was done as a career in entrepreneurship offers significant opportunities for individuals to achieve financial independence and benefit of the economy by contributing to job creation, innovation and economic growth. However, in Indonesia there was only 0.18 percent from about 200 million people who are entrepreneurs which is far less than 2 percent of the people. As a result, there are many government programs undertaken in order to boost new entrepreneurs. In this regard, the identification of the profile of entrepreneurial intentions in students, will also add the information needed about factors needed to strengthen and/or develop this intention. Approach/Methods: This paper is written based on 5 research studies done at University students, which collaborated into one research umbrella under the topic of Entrepreneurial Intention. Results/Insights: The results show that in general the University Students can be categorized as having moderate entrepreneurial intentions. However, there are no significant correlation amongst locus of control, emotional & behaviour independent as well as adversity quotients with entrepreneurial intentions. On the other hand, there is a positive and significant correlation between entrepreneurial self efficacy and observational learning with entrepreneurial intention. From the study it can be concluded that, the characteristics of the person itself are not enough in developing the entrepreneurial intention. There should be a basic entrepreneurial self efficacy on them, and supported with the presence of role models. Implications: The future research is needed to study about the psychological characteristics as mentioned in relationship with the entrepreneurial intentions in a larger and in more diverse respondents. On the other hand, it appears that in relation to enhance the entrepreneurial intentions in students there should be more efforts in terms of training, workshops, role modelling in order to develop stronger entrepreneurial intentions in University students. Keywords: Entrepreneurial Intentions; Locus of Control; Adversity Quotient; Emotional & Behavioural Independence; Entrepreneurial Self Efficacy; and Observational Learning.
    11 th International Entrepreneurship Forum (IEF), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 09/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Sub Theme: Life Long Learning and Skills Development for Sustainable Entrepreneurial Development. Objectives: To discuss about the difficulties in developing the entrepreneurial intention in unemployed youth in Indonesia. Theoretical Background/Previous Practice: This paper is based on my study about collective entrepreneurship at metropolitan city of Jakarta. This study was done in order to establish a financial independent of the unemployed youth in one of economical undeveloped area in Jakarta. In order to combat the poverty as well as the unemployment, the researcher was trying to equip the youth with the necessities of skills and equipment to become the new entrepreneurs. However, it was shown that in order to develop the entrepreneurial intention there are many factors should be considered and one of them is collective reinforcement, community and family supports as well as role modelling, and coaching. Approach/Methods: This study was done using an Action Research approach, involving 20 unemployed youths, and 10 key persons from the community. Results/Insights: The results show that it is not easy to develop new entrepreneurs. In this regard, although a person is unemployed and equipped with the life skills so that they can use it to help themselves to become financial independent, but it appears that their expectations are only in relation with finding jobs and become employee in the company. The statuses as employees are more prestige for them, and also they feel that they don’t have the guts and resilience to become entrepreneurs. Furthermore, it was also shown that the role of family, especially parents, key stake holders in the community, as well as role models are very important in influencing the intention and expectation of the youths. Implications: The future research is needed to study about the factors that can be used to develop and strengthen the entrepreneurial intentions for the unemployed youth. From the results, it can be concluded that family (especially parents), community, institutions and government bodies, should be involved in terms of developing entrepreneurial intentions in order to make the unemployed youth financially independent, and have different mindsets about entrepreneurs, as well as having other preferences not only would like to work as employees. Keywords: Entrepreneurial Intentions; Collective Entrepreneurship, Expectancy Theory.
    11 th International Entrepreneurship Forum (IEF), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 09/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Entrepreneurship is seen as a wealth creation activity among economies in many countries and it is also a best solution for the problem of unemployment in developing countries. However, the entrepreneurial career is not preferred by the younger generation particularly the academics. Thus, the main objective of this research was to examine the career intention of academics in Sri Lanka and determinates plead with their decisions. The results showed that the majority of academics preferred to work in public sector and they ranked entrepreneurship as their second or third choice. Further, this study revealed that the gender, family business experience, type of the study programme and the year of the study programme were significantly impinge on entrepreneurial intention among academic while the financial ability of their family is not related to their intention. It is clear that determinant plays a major role in entrepreneurship intention.