Lee, K. J., Nallathamby, P. D., Browning, L. M., Osgood, C. J. & Xu, X. H. N. In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos. ACS Nano 1, 133-143

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA.
ACS Nano (Impact Factor: 12.88). 10/2007; 1(2):133-43. DOI: 10.1021/nn700048y
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Real-time study of the transport and biocompatibility of nanomaterials in early embryonic development at single-nanoparticle resolution can offer new knowledge about the delivery and effects of nanomaterials in vivo and provide new insights into molecular transport mechanisms in developing embryos. In this study, we directly characterized the transport of single silver nanoparticles into an in vivo model system (zebrafish embryos) and investigated their effects on early embryonic development at single-nanoparticle resolution in real time. We designed highly purified and stable (not aggregated and no photodecomposition) nanoparticles and developed single-nanoparticle optics and in vivo assays to enable the study. We found that single Ag nanoparticles (5-46 nm) are transported into and out of embryos through chorion pore canals (CPCs) and exhibit Brownian diffusion (not active transport), with the diffusion coefficient inside the chorionic space (3 x 10(-9) cm(2)/s) approximately 26 times lower than that in egg water (7.7 x 10(-8) cm(2)/s). In contrast, nanoparticles were trapped inside CPCs and the inner mass of the embryos, showing restricted diffusion. Individual Ag nanoparticles were observed inside embryos at each developmental stage and in normally developed, deformed, and dead zebrafish, showing that the biocompatibility and toxicity of Ag nanoparticles and types of abnormalities observed in zebrafish are highly dependent on the dose of Ag nanoparticles, with a critical concentration of 0.19 nM. Rates of passive diffusion and accumulation of nanoparticles in embryos are likely responsible for the dose-dependent abnormalities. Unlike other chemicals, single nanoparticles can be directly imaged inside developing embryos at nanometer spatial resolution, offering new opportunities to unravel the related pathways that lead to the abnormalities.

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Available from: Kerry J. Lee, Sep 27, 2015
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    • "Applying TEM and SEM coupled with EDX, Carbo-Iron was not detected in the embryo or in the perivitelline space in the present study. Lee et al. (2007) observed passive diffusion of 12 nm silver particles into the perivitelline space of D. rerio eggs, and Asharani et al. (2008, 2011) reported the presence of nano-silver, nano-gold, and nanoplatinum particles with diameters ≤35 nm in D. rerio embryos. Yet, silica nanoparticles of 60 nm and 200 nm diameter did not pass through the chorion of D. rerio (Fent et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: For degradation of halogenated chemicals in groundwater Carbo-Iron®, a composite of activated carbon and nano-sized Fe(0), was developed (Mackenzie et al., 2012). Potential effects of this nanocomposite on fish were assessed. Beyond the contaminated zone Fe(0) can be expected to have oxidized and Carbo-Iron was used in its oxidized form in ecotoxicological tests. Potential effects of Carbo Iron in zebrafish (Danio rerio) were investigated using a 48h embryo toxicity test under static conditions, a 96h acute test with adult fish under semi-static conditions and a 34 d fish early life stage test (FELST) in a flow-through system. Particle diameters in test suspensions were determined via dynamic light scattering (DLS) and ranged from 266 to 497nm. Particle concentrations were measured weekly in samples from the FELST using a method based on the count rate in DLS. Additionally, uptake of particles into test organisms was investigated using microscopic methods. Furthermore, effects of Carbo-Iron on gene expression were investigated by microarray analysis in zebrafish embryos. In all tests performed, no significant lethal effects were observed. Furthermore, Carbo-Iron had no significant influence on weight and length of fish as determined in the FELST. In the embryo test and the early life stage test, growth of fungi on the chorion was observed at Carbo-Iron concentrations between 6.3 and 25mg/L. Fungal growth did not affect survival, hatching success and growth. In the embryo test, no passage of Carbo-Iron particles into the perivitelline space or the embryo was observed. In juvenile and adult fish, Carbo-Iron was detected in the gut at the end of exposure. In juvenile fish exposed to Carbo-Iron for 29 d and subsequently kept for 5d in control water, Carbo-Iron was no longer detectable in the gut. Global gene expression in zebrafish embryos was not significantly influenced by Carbo-Iron. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Science of The Total Environment 10/2015; 530. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.05.087 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "Celestolide has been detected at concentrations up to 0.5 ␮g/L (Heberer et al., 1999). Fragrances are introduced into the environment via waste water treatment plants, as they are the constituents of personal care products and household cleaners (Lee et al., 2007; Sumner et al., 2010). Maximum CUs of about 0.1 can be calculated for galaxolide and tonalide. "
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    ABSTRACT: The active cellular efflux of toxicants is an efficient biological defense mode present in all organisms. By blocking this so-called multixenobiotic resistance transport-a process also referred to as chemosensitisation-, cellular bioaccumulation and the sensitivity of organisms towards environmental pollutants can increase. So far, a wide range of compounds, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, and surfactants, have been identified as chemosensitisers. Although, significant on a cellular level, the environmental impact of chemosensitisation on the organism level is not yet understood. Critically evaluating existing data, this paper identifies research needs to support our tentative conclusion that chemosensitisation may well enhance the risks of chemical exposure to aquatic organisms. Our conclusion is based on studies investigating the impact of individual chemicals and complex environmental mixtures on aquatic wildlife and a chemosensitiser mixture toxicity model which, however, is subject to great uncertainty due to substantial knowledge gaps. Those uncertainties include the inconsistent reporting of effect data, the lack of representative environmental contaminants tested for chemosensitisation, and the publishing of highly unreliable nominal exposure concentrations. In order to confirm the tentative conclusion of this paper, we require the significant and systematic investigation of a broader set of chemicals and environmental samples with a harmonised set of bioassays and rigorously controlled freely dissolved effect concentrations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Aquatic Toxicology 07/2015; 167:134-142. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.07.017 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    • "NPs have been shown to accumulate in cells, such as macrophages and hepatocytes (Johnston et al., 2010). Moreover , they are taken up by aquatic organisms, such as mollusks , crustaceans, fish, bacteria, protozoa, algae, and zooplankton (Kashiwada, 2006; Gallego et al., 2007; Lee et al., 2007; Heinlaan et al., 2008; Aruoja et al., 2009; Tao et al., 2009; Ward and Kach, 2009; Ates et al., 2013a,b). Therefore, both aquatic and terrestrial habitats are likely to be affected adversely from discharges of nanosize of ZnO and CuO. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary and waterborne exposure to copper oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) was conducted using a simplified model of an aquatic food chain consisting of zooplankton (Artemia salina) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) to determine bioaccumulation, toxic effects, and particle transport through trophic levels. Artemia contaminated with NPs were used as food in dietary exposure. Fish were exposed to suspensions of the NPs in waterborne exposure. ICP-MS analysis showed that accumulation primarily occurred in the intestine, followed by the gills and liver. Dietary uptake was lower, but was found to be a potential pathway for transport of NPs to higher organisms. Waterborne exposure resulted in about a 10-fold higher accumulation in the intestine. The heart, brain, and muscle tissue had no significant Cu or Zn. However, concentrations in muscle increased with NP concentration, which was ascribed to bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn released from NPs. Free Cu concentration in the medium was always higher than that of Zn, indicating CuO NPs dissolved more readily. ZnO NPs were relatively benign, even in waterborne exposure (p ≥ 0.05). In contrast, CuO NPs were toxic. Malondialdehyde levels in the liver and gills increased substantially (p < 0.05). Despite lower Cu accumulation, the liver exhibited significant oxidative stress, which could be from chronic exposure to Cu ions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.
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