Savini S, D’Ascenzo R, Biagetti C, et al. The effect of 5 intravenous lipid emulsions on plasma phytosterols in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition: a randomized clinical trial

Division of Neonatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche and Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona, Italy, and the Dipartimento Medico Chirurgico di Cardiologia Pediatrica, Pediatric Hospital "Bambino Gesù", Rome, Italy.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 06/2013; 98(2). DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.112.056556
Source: PubMed


BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma phytosterol concentrations are an untoward effect of parenteral nutrition (PN) with vegetable oil-based lipid emulsions (LEs). Phytosterols are elevated in neonatal cholestasis, but the relation remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 5 LEs on plasma phytosterols in preterm infants. DESIGN: One hundred forty-four consecutive admitted preterm infants (birth weight: 500-1249 g) were studied. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 5 different LEs: S [100% soybean oil (SO)], MS [50% medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and 50% SO], MSF (50% MCTs, 40% SO, and 10% fish oil (FO)], OS (80% olive oil and 20% SO), or MOSF (30% MCTs, 25% olive oil, 30% SO, and 15% FO). Phytosterols in the LEs and in plasma (on postnatal day 7 and day 14) were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Patients in the S group had significantly higher total phytosterol intakes than did the other study groups. On PN days 7 and 14, plasma phytosterol concentrations were highest in the S group and lowest in the MOSF group. Despite similar β-sitosterol intakes between the MS and MSF groups, plasma concentrations were significantly lower in the MSF than in the MS group. Only 3 patients (2.1%) developed cholestasis: 1 in the MS, 1 in the MSF, and 1 in the MOSF group. No cases of cholestasis were observed in the S and OS groups. CONCLUSIONS: In uncomplicated preterm infants receiving routine PN, we found a correlation between phytosterol intake and plasma phytosterol concentrations; however, cholestasis was rare and no difference in liver function at 6 wk was observed.

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