Savini S, D’Ascenzo R, Biagetti C, et al. The effect of 5 intravenous lipid emulsions on plasma phytosterols in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition: a randomized clinical trial
Division of Neonatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche and Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona, Italy, and the Dipartimento Medico Chirurgico di Cardiologia Pediatrica, Pediatric Hospital "Bambino Gesù", Rome, Italy.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 06/2013; 98(2). DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.112.056556
BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma phytosterol concentrations are an untoward effect of parenteral nutrition (PN) with vegetable oil-based lipid emulsions (LEs). Phytosterols are elevated in neonatal cholestasis, but the relation remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 5 LEs on plasma phytosterols in preterm infants. DESIGN: One hundred forty-four consecutive admitted preterm infants (birth weight: 500-1249 g) were studied. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 5 different LEs: S [100% soybean oil (SO)], MS [50% medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and 50% SO], MSF (50% MCTs, 40% SO, and 10% fish oil (FO)], OS (80% olive oil and 20% SO), or MOSF (30% MCTs, 25% olive oil, 30% SO, and 15% FO). Phytosterols in the LEs and in plasma (on postnatal day 7 and day 14) were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Patients in the S group had significantly higher total phytosterol intakes than did the other study groups. On PN days 7 and 14, plasma phytosterol concentrations were highest in the S group and lowest in the MOSF group. Despite similar β-sitosterol intakes between the MS and MSF groups, plasma concentrations were significantly lower in the MSF than in the MS group. Only 3 patients (2.1%) developed cholestasis: 1 in the MS, 1 in the MSF, and 1 in the MOSF group. No cases of cholestasis were observed in the S and OS groups. CONCLUSIONS: In uncomplicated preterm infants receiving routine PN, we found a correlation between phytosterol intake and plasma phytosterol concentrations; however, cholestasis was rare and no difference in liver function at 6 wk was observed.
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ABSTRACT: Lipid is an essential macronutrient in parenteral nutrition (PN) support. intravenous (IV) lipid provides essential fatty acids and a concentrated calorie source. Preterm infants are at risk for essential fatty deficiency early in life. Lipid administration is associated with some risks, and there are guidelines for administration to minimize complications. Lipid emulsions in the United States are derived from soybean oil. Outside of the United States, lipid emulsions made from fish oil or combinations of fish, soybean, olive, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are under investigation for improved tolerance, lower plasma lipid levels, and improved fatty acid profiles, all of which are considered beneficial. Triglyceride levels are an important measurement to assess patient tolerance.Neonatal network: NN 05/2014; 33(3):162-5. DOI:10.1891/0730-08126.96.36.199
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ABSTRACT: Parenteral nutrition is a life-saving therapy for infants with intestinal failure. However, long-term parenteral nutrition carries the risk of progressive liver disease. Substantial data has implicated components of parenteral soybean oil in the pathogenesis of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). Elevated serum concentrations of phytosterols, an abundance of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a relative paucity of α-tocopherol have been associated with the risk of cholestasis and hepatic injury observed in PNALD. Currently available treatment strategies include the reduction of the dose of administered parenteral soybean oil and/or the replacement of parenteral soybean oil with alternative parenteral lipid emulsions. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the pathogenetic mechanisms associated with the development of PNALD and the data evaluating currently available treatment strategies.Advances in Nutrition 11/2013; 4(6):711-717. DOI:10.3945/an.113.004770 · 4.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lipids provide infants with most of their energy needs. The major portion of the fat in human milk is found in the form of triglycerides, the phospholipids and cholesterol contributing for only a small proportion of the total fat. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are crucial for normal development of the central nervous system and have potential for long-lasting effects that extend beyond the period of dietary insufficiency. Given the limited and highly variable formation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from α-linolenic acid, and because DHA is critical for normal retinal and brain development in the human, DHA should be considered to be conditionally essential during early development. In early enteral studies, the amount of LC-PUFAs administered in formula was chosen to produce the same concentration of arachidonic acid and DHA as in term breast milk. Recent studies report outcome data in preterm infants fed formula with DHA content 2-3 times higher than the current concentration. Overall, these studies show that providing larger amounts of DHA supplements is associated with better neurological outcomes and may provide other health benefits. One study further suggests that the smallest babies are the most vulnerable to DHA deficiency and likely to reap the greatest benefit from high-dose DHA supplementation. Current nutritional management may not provide sufficient amounts of preformed DHA during the parenteral and enteral nutrition periods and in very preterm/very low birth weight infants until due date and higher amounts than those routinely used are likely to be necessary to compensate for intestinal malabsorption, DHA oxidation, and early deficit. Recommendations for the healthcare provider are made in order to prevent lipid and more specifically LC-PUFA deficit. Research should be continued to fill the gaps in knowledge and to further refine the adequate intake for each group of preterm infants. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.World review of nutrition and dietetics 04/2014; 110:82-98. DOI:10.1159/000358460
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