Rutin suppresses atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis
ABSTRACT Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of eczematous, scratching, pruritus and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. The aim of our study was to examine whether rutin, a predominant flavonoid having anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential, modulates AD and ACD symptoms. We established an atopic dermatitis model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. In addition, 2,4-dinitroflourobenzene-sensitized a local lymph node assay was used for the ACD model. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD symptoms. Topical application of rutin reduced AD based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE levels. Rutin inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. Rutin suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-31, IL-32 and interferon (INF)-γ in the tissue. In addition, rutin suppressed ACD based on ear thickness and lymphocyte proliferation, serum IgG2a levels, and expression of INF-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor-α in ACD ears. This study demonstrates that rutin inhibits AD and ACD, suggesting that rutin might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Lysimachia clethroides Duby (LC) is a traditional medicinal herb used to treat edema, hepatitis and inflammatory diseases in China and other Asian countries. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of LC extract and the mechanisms underlying were explored in both in vitro cell lines and acute lung injury (ALI) animal model of inflammation in vivo. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 murine macrophages were used to study the regulatory effects of LC extract on inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Western blotting or ELISA techniques were employed to estimate protein levels. RT-PCR was used for analyzing the interferon (IFN)-β production. LPS-induced ALI mouse model in vivo was employed to study the effect of LC extract. Further high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting technique was used to evaluate the active constituents present in LC extract, compared with reference standards. Pre-treatment with LC extract inhibited the LPS-stimulated NO release, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 production in Raw 264.7 cells dose dependently. LC extract inhibited the LPS-stimulated IRF3 and STAT1 phosphorylation. Further, in vivo experiments revealed that LC extract suppressed the infiltration of immune cells into the lung and proinflammatory cytokine production in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the LPS-induced ALI mouse model. Our results indicate that LC extract attenuates LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in macrophages via regulating the key inflammatory mechanisms, providing a scientific support for its traditional use in treating various inflammatory diseases.Journal of ethnopharmacology 10/2013; 150(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.056
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ABSTRACT: In the treatment of mild to medium severe atopic dermatitis a new formulation proved to be highly efficient. The formulation is based on a combination of microsilver and Nano Lipid Carriers (NLC) incorporated into an o/w cream and a lotion. A theory of action was proposed, the formation of a silver-NLC complex (sNLC). In this study this theory was proven, and based on this new mechanism two new approaches for dealing with AD are suggested to distinctly improve AD treatment, i.e. increasing efficiency, reducing drug exposure and reducing side effects. The antimicrobial silver ions adsorb onto the surface of the negatively charged NLC (= sNLC complex). The sNLC as nanoparticles are highly adhesive to skin and bacterial surfaces, leading to a locally high concentration of silver ions killing the bacteria, much more effective than silver alone. The NLC restore the distorted skin barrier. Based on this a new two-step approach is suggested: 1. "treatment-supportive consumer care" by restoring the normal skin condition (NLC for barrier restoration plus synergistic antibacterial silver-NLC complex) and 2. "drug-loaded consumer care AD formulations". i.e. incorporating drugs into the NLC of this consumer care formulation. NLC incorporation makes the drugs more effective (penetration enhancement) and simultaneously exploits the skin normalization ability of the skin care sNLC formulation, future drug candidates being prednicarbate and tacrolimus.International Journal of Pharmaceutics 12/2013; 462(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.12.044
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ABSTRACT: Salvia plebeia R. Br. (Lamiaceae) has been used for folk medicines in Asian countries, including Korea and China, to treat skin inflammatory diseases and asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of S. plebeia extract (SPE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions and defined underlying mechanisms of action. We established an AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like skin lesions. The oral administration of SPE decreased AD symptoms based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE and IgG2a levels. SPE suppressed mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. SPE inhibited Th1/Th2/Th17 phenotype CD4(+) T lymphocytes expansion in the lymph node and the expression of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in the ear tissue. To define the underlying mechanisms of action, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ activated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) model was used. SPE significantly suppressed the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-κB, and STAT1 in HaCaT cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SPE might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 01/2014; 42(4):967-85. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X1450061X