Turnip mosaic virus genome-linked protein VPg binds C-terminal region of cap-bound initiation factor 4E orthologue without exhibiting host cellular specificity.
ABSTRACT To investigate the binding specificity of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) viral protein-genome linked (VPg) with translation initiation factor 4E, we evaluated here the kinetic parameters for the interactions of human eIF4E, Caenorhabditis elegans IFE-3 and IFE-5 and Arabidopsis eIFiso4E, by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The results indicated that TuMV VPg does not show a binding preference for Arabidopsis eIFiso4E, even though it is from a host species whereas the other eIF4E orthologues are not. Surprisingly, the effect of m(7)GTP on both the rate constants and equilibrium binding constants for the interactions of VPg differed for the four eIF4E orthologues. In the case of eIFiso4E and IFE-3, m(7)GTP increased k(on), but for eIF4E and IFE-5, it decreased k(on). To provide insight into the structural basis for these differences in VPg binding, tertiary structures of the eIF4E orthologues were predicted on the basis of the previously determined crystal structure of m(7)GpppA-bound human eIF4E. The results suggested that in cap-bound eIF4E orthologues, the VPg binds to the C-terminal region, which constitutes one side of the entrance to the cap-binding pocket, whereas in the cap-free state, VPg binds to the widely opened cap-binding pocket and its surrounding region. The binding of VPg to the C-terminal region was confirmed by the SPR analyses of N- or C-terminal residues-deleted eIF4E orthologues.
- SourceAvailable from: pnas.org[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Virion RNA of poliovirus type 1 has been analyzed for the linkage between genome-protein VPg and the polyribonucleotide chain. Hydrolysis of the linkage with acid or alkali and enzymatic degradation lead to the conclusion that the bond is neither a phosphodiester such as nucleotidyl-(P-O)-serine (or threonine) nor a phosphoramidate such as nucleotidyl-(P-N)-amino acid. VPg-RNA can be iodinated by the Bolton and Hunter reagent [iodinated 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester] but not by the chloramine-T or lactoperoxidase procedures, an observation suggesting that VPg does not contain accessible tyrosine. However, VPg can be labeled with [3H]tyrosine in vivo. Hydrolysis of VPg-[32P]pUp with 5.6 M HCl at 110 degrees yielded 32P-labeled O4-(3'-phospho-5'-uridylyl)tyrosine that could be cleaved with micrococcal nuclease to O4-[32P]phosphotyrosine and uridine 3'-[32P]phosphate. These data establish that VPg is linked to the poliovirus genome by a bond between the O4 of tyrosine and the 5'-P atom of the terminal uridylic acid residue. The 5' end of polio genome RNA can now be described as VPg(Tyr-O)-pU-U-A-A-A-A-C-A-G.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1978; 75(10):4868-72. · 9.74 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The viral protein linked to the genome (VPg) of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) interacts in vitro with the translation eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E. In the present study, we investigated the consequence of TuMV infection on eIF4E expression. Two isomers are present in plants, namely eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E. Expression of the latter was detected in both TuMV-infected and mock-inoculated Brassica perviridis plants, but expression of eIF4E was found only in infected plants. Membranes from TuMV-infected or mock-inoculated tissues were separated by sucrose gradient centrifugation and fractions were collected. Immunoblot analyses showed that 6K(2)-VPg-Pro/VPg-Pro polyproteins were associated with endoplasmic reticulum membranes and were the viral forms likely to interact with eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E. In planta interaction between 6K(2)-VPg-Pro/VPg-Pro and eIF(iso)4E/eIF4E was confirmed by co-purification by metal chelation chromatography. The poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) was also found to co-purify with VPg-Pro. Direct interaction between VPg-Pro and PABP was shown by an ELISA-based binding assay. These experiments suggest that a multi-protein complex may form around VPg-Pro of TuMV.Journal of General Virology 05/2004; 85(Pt 4):1055-63. · 3.13 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Primitive eukaryotes like Caenorhabditis elegans produce mRNAs capped with either m(7)GTP or m(3)(2,2,7)GTP. Caenorhabditis elegans also expresses five isoforms of the cap-binding protein eIF4E. Some isoforms (e.g. IFE-3) bind to m(7)GTP-Sepharose exclusively, whereas others (e.g. IFE-5) bind to both m(7)GTP- and m(3)(2,2,7)GTP-Sepharose. To examine specificity differences, we devised molecular models of the tertiary structures of IFE-3 and IFE-5, based on the known structure of mouse eIF4E-1. We then substituted amino acid sequences of IFE-5 with homologous sequences from IFE-3. As few as two changes (N64Y/V65L) converted the cap specificity of IFE-5 to essentially that of IFE-3. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that the width and depth of the cap-binding cavity were larger in IFE-5 than in IFE-3 or the N64Y/V65L variant, supporting a model in which IFE-3 discriminates against m(3)(2,2,7)GTP by steric hindrance. Furthermore, the affinity of IFE-5 (but not IFE-3) for m(3)(2,2,7)GTP was reversibly increased when thiol reagents were removed. This was correlated with the formation of a disulfide bond between Cys-122 and Cys-126. Thus, translation of m(3)(2,2,7)GTP-capped mRNAs may be regulated by intracellular redox state.The EMBO Journal 10/2002; 21(17):4680-90. · 9.82 Impact Factor