To improve multi-disciplinary care in pregnancy, a gastrointesintal (GI) disorders in pregnancy clinic was created. Patient and referring provider satisfaction with this service was assessed.
The first 100 patients and their referring providers were surveyed. Survey scores >3 on a 5-point Likert scale were considered favorable. Descriptive statistics were calculated and open-ended items were analyzed.
Fifty-four percent of patients and 32% of providers returned questionnaires. All satisfaction items received an average patient score of >3.6 and provider score of >4.1, demonstrating overall satisfaction with the clinic. Referring providers were particularly satisfied.
Patients and providers, in particular, report a high level of satisfaction with a GI pregnancy clinic.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of data in the literature on the risks associated with, and optimal management of, pregnancy in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH).
To assess maternal and fetal outcomes in relation to clinical management of pregnancy in a large cohort of patients with well defined AIH.
A review of all known pregnancies in 162 females with definite AIH attending our clinics between 1983 and 1998, with respect to treatment, natural history, and outcome.
Thirty one live births (one twin) resulted from 35 pregnancies in 18 women (seven with cirrhosis). Median age at conception was 28 years (range 18-36). Two patients presented with AIH de novo during pregnancy. At conception, in 15 pregnancies patients had been receiving azathioprine alone or (in nine) with prednisolone, in seven prednisolone alone, and in one cyclosporin. Fetal loss at > or =20 weeks' gestation occurred in two instances. Flares in disease activity occurred during four pregnancies and within three months of delivery in a further four. Among the 31 children born (median follow up 10 years) only two abnormalities have been identified: Perthes' disease in one and severe mental and physical handicap in a second who was born prematurely following decompensation of the mother's liver disease. Neither mother was receiving azathioprine.
Successful completion of pregnancy is a realistic expectation for patients with well controlled AIH. Treatment options vary, but azathioprine appears to be generally safe and without adverse outcomes for mother or baby. Vigilance is required, however, and patients need to be monitored carefully during pregnancy and for several months post partum.
Gut 01/2001; 48(1):97-102. DOI:10.1136/gut.48.1.97 · 14.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Training in gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in pregnancy is required for all gastroenterology fellows. Nevertheless, the actual role of the gastroenterologist in the management of pregnant patients is unknown. Establishing the characteristics of GI consultations in pregnancy can help focus trainee education and prepare gastroenterologists for future practice. The purpose of this study was to determine the indications for consultations in pregnancy and the gastroenterologist's role in the evaluation and management of the pregnant patient.
A chart review was performed of all consecutive outpatient GI consultations for pregnant women at a high-volume obstetrics hospital over a 3-year period. Referring source, patient characteristics, indication(s) for consultation, diagnosis(es), change in management after consultation, and need for follow-up were recorded.
We reviewed 370 charts. The mean age (±standard deviation [SD]) at referral was 28.7 years ± 6.5, and mean weeks of gestation (±SD) was 21.3 ± 8.8. Obstetrician/gynecologists requested most consultations (70.1%). New GI symptoms arising in pregnancy comprised 35.4% of consultations, and worsening of a preexisting GI disorder comprised 24.4%. The most common indications for consultation were viral hepatitis (20.2%), nausea and vomiting (18.9%), and nonspecific abdominal pain (13.5%). The most common diagnoses were acute or chronic viral hepatitis (17.8%), hyperemesis gravidarum (15.1%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (14.3%), and constipation (13.0%). Consultation changed the diagnosis in 25.1% of patients and changed management in 78.6%. Follow-up was required in 77.3% of cases during pregnancy and 37.8% postpartum.
GI consultation in pregnancy is sought more frequently for the evaluation and management of GI disorders not unique to pregnancy than for pregnancy-unique disorders. Although GI consultation changed the diagnosis in a minority of cases, it changed management in the majority. Gastroenterologists should be familiar with the most common indications for consultation in pregnancy and be prepared to evaluate and manage pregnant women with GI disorders.
Journal of Women's Health 02/2011; 20(3):359-63. DOI:10.1089/jwh.2010.2345 · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the events that might lead to an increased risk of cholesterol gallstones, we examined biliary lipid composition and secretion and bile acid composition and kinetics at different stages of pregnancy or ovulation in young, nonobese, healthy women. Lipid composition and bile acid distribution were determined in duodenal fluid obtained in the fasting state and after stimulation of the gallbladder. Biliary lipid secretion was measured by the marker-perfusion technique. Bile acid kinetics were determined with cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids labeled with carbon13, by measuring the relative abundance of 13C in duodenal bile acids for 4--5 d. In a subset of patients we measured gallbladder storage and emptying during the kinetic study. The phase of the ovulatory cycle had no effects, but there were significant changes during pregnancy. The lithogenic or cholesterol saturation index of fasting hepatic and gallbladder bile increased during the second and third trimesters. The mean secretion rate of biliary lipids was not altered, but in the last two-thirds of pregnancy, cholesterol secretion increased in relation to bile acid and phospholipid secretion. There was a progressive decrease in the percentage of chenodeoxycholic acid and a similar increase in the percentage of cholic acid. The pool size of each major bile acid increased in the first trimester. Chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid pools, but not cholic acid pools, subsequently decreased. The fractional turnover rate of both primary bile acids was slower during pregnancy. The synthesis rate of chenodeoxycholic but not cholic acid decreased in a linear manner during the first 20 wk of pregnancy. The rate of enterohepatic cycling of the bile acid pool was reduced throughout pregnancy. The volume of the fasting gallbladder and the residual volume after a physiologically stimulated contraction were directly correlated with bile acid pool size. The residual volume was also directly related to total bile acid synthesis.
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