Brain activations in errorless and errorful learning in patients with diffuse axonal injury: A functional MRI study

Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan.
Brain Injury (Impact Factor: 1.81). 04/2009; 23(4):291-8.. DOI: 10.1080/02699050902794855.
Source: OAI

Errorless learning has been reported to be effective in the rehabilitation of patients with impaired cognitive functions following brain injury. This study compared brain activations in errorless learning (EL) and errorful learning (EF) in patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
The participants were 13 patients with DAI. Thirteen healthy individuals were evaluated as a control group. The participants learned words under the EL and EF conditions in advance and performed the recognition task during fMRI scanning.
EL in the control group was significantly faster than EF (p = 0.005), but not in the DAI group. EL in the DAI group scored significantly higher than EF (p = 0.026). An fMRI showed significant activations in the posterior cingulate gyrus (BA 31) and precuneus (BA 7) in the control group when EF > EL, but in the precuneus (BA 7, 31) and bilateral inferior parietal lobules (BA 39, 40) in the DAI group.
These results indicate the disadvantage of EF and advantage of EL to DAI patients. The findings also reflect brain plasticity in patients with DAI in the chronic phase.

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Available from: Hiroki Ueno, Sep 27, 2015
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    • "Rodriguez- Fornells, Kofidis, and Münte (2004) conducted an electroencephalography study, and found error-related negativity, a waveform deflection that is maximal over central frontal regions when an error or mismatch is detected or signalled by feedback (Holroyd & Coles, 2002; Scheffers & Coles, 2000), elicited when participants make recognition decisions about learning errors and targets learned through errorful learning. Ueno et al. (2009) conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of errorless and errorful learning in a group of patients with diffuse axonal injury and healthy controls. Consistent with the Rodriguez-Fornells study, they found greater activation of the anterior cingulate during errorful than errorless learning, but only in the control group. "
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    • "So far, there is only one fMRI study investigating the advantages of EL learning and the disadvantages of EF learning in a word stem completion task in patients with diffuse axonal injury in a blocked design [37]. Due to the blocked design, the the findings are insensitive to the correctness of the response. "
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