Growth hormone inhibition of glucose uptake in adipocytes occurs without affecting GLUT4 translocation through an insulin receptor substrate-2-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway.
ABSTRACT Growth hormone (GH) pretreatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Surprisingly, this occurred without significant effect on insulin-stimulated glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 translocation or fusion with the plasma membrane. In parallel, the inhibitory actions of chronic GH pretreatment also impaired insulin-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase bound to insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 but not to IRS-1. In addition, insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation was inhibited by GH pretreatment. In contrast, overexpression of IRS-2 or expression of a constitutively active Akt mutant prevented the GH-induced insulin resistance of glucose uptake. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated IRS-2 knockdown also inhibited insulin-stimulated Akt activation and glucose uptake without affecting GLUT4 translocation and plasma membrane fusion. Together, these data support a model in which chronic GH stimulation inhibits insulin-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase through a specific interaction of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase bound to IRS-2. This inhibition leads to suppression of Akt activation coupled to glucose transport activity but not translocation or plasma membrane fusion of GLUT4.
- Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 10/1965; 66(3):366-79. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of insulin roughly 80 yr ago, much has been learned about how target cells receive, interpret, and respond to this peptide hormone. For example, we now know that insulin activates the tyrosine kinase activity of its cell surface receptor, thereby triggering intracellular signaling cascades that regulate many cellular processes. With respect to glucose homeostasis, these include the function of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production and to increase glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissues, the latter resulting from the translocation of the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the cell surface membrane. Although simple in broad outline, elucidating the molecular intricacies of these receptor-signaling pathways and membrane-trafficking processes continues to challenge the creative ingenuity of scientists, and many questions remain unresolved, or even perhaps unasked. The identification and functional characterization of specific molecules required for both insulin signaling and GLUT4 vesicle trafficking remain key issues in our pursuit of developing specific therapeutic agents to treat and/or prevent this debilitating disease process. To this end, the combined efforts of numerous research groups employing a range of experimental approaches has led to a clearer molecular picture of how insulin regulates the membrane trafficking of GLUT4.Endocrine Reviews 05/2004; 25(2):177-204. · 14.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Growth hormone (GH) is well known to induce in vivo insulin resistance. However, the molecular mechanism of GH-induced cellular insulin resistance is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that chronic GH treatment of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduces insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose (DOG) uptake and activation of Akt (also known as protein kinase B), both of which are downstream effects of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, despite enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, association of IRS-1 with the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, and IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity. In contrast, chronic GH treatment did not affect 2-DOG uptake and Akt activation induced by overexpression of a membrane-targeted form of the p110 subunit of PI 3-kinase (p110(CAAX)) or Akt activation stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor. Fractionation studies indicated that chronic GH treatment reduces insulin-stimulated translocation of Akt from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Interestingly, chronic GH treatment increased insulin-stimulated association of IRS-1 with p85 and IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity preferentially in the cytosol. These results indicate that cellular insulin resistance induced by chronic GH treatment in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is caused by uncoupling between activation of PI 3-kinase and its downstream signals, which is specific to the insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase pathway. This effect of GH might result from the altered subcellular distribution of IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase.Diabetes 09/2001; 50(8):1891-900. · 7.90 Impact Factor