Role of 3′-phosphoinositides in oncogenic KRAS-induced modulation of shape and motility of airway epithelial cells
ABSTRACT The authors' previous study demonstrated that oncogenic KRAS modulates the shape and motility of airway epithelial cells. To explore detailed mechanism mediating these events, the possible involvement of phosphatidylinositides (PIP) was investigated. The intracellular localization of PIP was visualized with a pleckstrin homology domain-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) construct. PIP accumulated at the leading edges of polarizing epithelial cells, while they co-localized with cortical actin at cell-cell contacts, suggesting that PIP play important roles in the cytoskeletal organization. Transduction of oncogenic KRAS induced multiple pseudopodia and disrupted cortical actin, enhancing motility. A mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor reduced the accumulation of PIP at membranes and development of pseudopodia, and restored stable cortical actin, reducing the motility. A phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor also reduced accumulation of PIP at membranes, formation of pseudopodia and motility, but its effect on cortical actin was indistinct. The KRAS V12/S35 mutant, activating only the MEK pathway, induced multiple pseudopodia and disrupted the cortical actin. The KRAS V12/C40 mutant, activating only the PI3K pathway, also induced pseudopodia, but its effect on cortical actin was obscure. Taken together, oncogenic KRAS could cause the accumulation of PIP via the PI3K and MEK pathways and modulate the cell shape and migration.
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ABSTRACT: Small non-protein coding RNAs that regulate messenger RNA levels, namely microRNAs (miRNAs), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. The purpose of the present study was to identify essential miRNAs involved in lung carcinogenesis. Previous studies demonstrated that an investigation into the downstream targets of oncogenic KRAS could be used as a strategy to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in lung cancer; therefore, we examined the expression profiles of mRNAs modulated by oncogenic KRAS in the present study. We focused on miR-31 from the miRNAs that were differentially expressed, and evaluated its potential role in the development of lung cancer. miR-31 was upregulated not only by oncogenic KRAS, but also by oncogenic EGFR. The expression of miR-31 was markedly attenuated in some lung cancer cell lines by deleting its host gene locus. The restoration of miR-31 in lung cancer cell lines that lost its expression attenuated their growth activities. The knockdown of miR-31 expression in lung cancer cell lines retaining its expression enhanced anchorage-independent growth activity. These results suggest that miR-31 may be a suppressor that regulates an essential oncogenic pathway, the loss of which may promote lung carcinogenesis.Oncology Reports 07/2014; 32(4). DOI:10.3892/or.2014.3339 · 2.19 Impact Factor