L-type amino-acid transporter 1 as a novel biomarker for high-grade malignancy in prostate cancer
ABSTRACT To find reliable biomarkers for high-grade malignancy, the relationship between immunohistochemical L-type amino-acid transporter 1 (LAT1) expression of biopsy samples, determined with the newly developed monoclonal antibody against human LAT1, and prognosis of patients with prostate cancer, was investigated. The intensity and score of immunohistochemical LAT1 expression of first biopsy samples were assessed using the modified Sinicrope et al. method and were found to be correlated with poor survival for the study group of 114 surgically treated patients as a whole (P = 0.0002 and 0.0270, respectively). LAT1 intensity further had a significant relationship (P = 0.0057) with prognosis in pathological T3 + T4 groups. Multivariate analysis indicated that the LAT1 intensity and score were more reliable prognostic markers, compared with the Gleason score and the Ki-67 labeling index. A relationship of the LAT1 intensity and score with prognosis could also be confirmed in 63 patients with inoperable cancer (P = 0.0070 and <0.0001, respectively). Similarly, significant differences in prognosis were confirmed in clinical T3 + T4 groups (P = 0.0091 and 0.0244, respectively). Moreover, the combination of LAT1 expression and Gleason score was found to have a more reliable correlation with prognosis. Thus, elevated LAT1 expression in prostate cancers is a novel independent biomarker of high-grade malignancy, which can be utilized together with the Gleason score, which is mainly dependent on cellular and structural atypia, to assess prognosis.
- SourceAvailable from: Kimihiro Shimizu
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- "Recent studies have focussed on ASCT2 and LAT1, which are highly expressed in cancer cells (Fuchs and Bode, 2006). The overexpression of LAT1 may be a significant predictor of poor prognosis, and it is closely linked to the aggressiveness and metastasis of various human neoplasms (Nawashiro et al, 2006; Nakanishi et al, 2007; Kaira et al, 2008, 2012; Sakata et al, 2009; Ichinoe et al, 2011; Furuya et al; 2012). "
ABSTRACT: Background: ASC amino-acid transporter 2 (ASCT2) is a major glutamine transporter that has an essential role in tumour growth and progression. Although ASCT2 is highly expressed in various cancer cells, the clinicopathological significance of its expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. Methods: One hundred and four patients with surgically resected NSCLC were evaluated as one institutional cohort. Tumour sections were stained by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ASCT2, Ki-67, phospho-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), and CD34 to assess the microvessel density. Two hundred and four patients with NSCLC were also validated by IHC from an independent cohort. Results: ASC amino-acid transporter 2 was expressed in 66% of patients, and was closely correlated with disease stage, lymphatic permeation, vascular invasion, CD98, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and mTOR phosphorylation, particularly in patients with adenocarcinoma (AC). Moreover, two independent cohorts confirmed that ASCT2 was an independent marker for poor outcome in AC patients. Conclusions: ASC amino-acid transporter 2 expression has a crucial role in the metastasis of pulmonary AC, and is a potential molecular marker for predicting poor prognosis after surgery.British Journal of Cancer 03/2014; 110(8). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.88 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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- "L-type amino-acid transporter 1 expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining with a LAT1 antibody (2 mg ml À 1 , anti-human monoclonal mouse antibody, 4A2, provided by Dr H Endou (J-Pharma, Tokyo, Japan), dilution; 1 : 3200). The production and characterisation of the LAT1 antibody has previously been described (Sakata et al, 2009). The CD98 antibody is an affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc., Santa Cruz, CA, USA, 1 : 100 dilution) raised against a peptide mapping to the carboxy terminus of CD98 of human origin. "
ABSTRACT: The expression of L-type amino-acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is tumour-specific and has been shown to have essential roles in cell growth and survival. However, little is known regarding the clinical significance of LAT1 expression in pancreatic cancer. This study was conducted to determine the prognostic significance of LAT1 expression. A total of 97 consecutive patients with surgically resected pathological stage I-IV pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. Tumour sections were stained by immunohistochemistry for LAT1, CD98, Ki-67 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microvessel density was determined by CD34 and p53. L-type amino-acid transporter 1 and CD98 were highly expressed in 52.6% (51/97) and 56.7% (55/97) of cases, respectively (P=0.568). The expression of LAT1 within pancreatic cancer cells was significantly associated with disease stage, tumour size, Ki-67, VEGF, CD34, p53 and CD98. L-type amino-acid transporter 1 expression was confirmed to be a significant prognostic factor for predicting poor outcome by multivariate analysis. L-type amino-acid transporter 1 expression is a promising pathological marker for the prediction of outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer.British Journal of Cancer 07/2012; 107(4):632-8. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2012.310 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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- "18 F-AMT enters the tumor cells via L-type amino acid transporters (LAT), which is the only system that can transport large neutral amino acids with aromatic rings . LAT, especially its subtype LAT1, was reported to be highly expressed in many cancer cell lines and positively correlates with tumor growth  . So far, 18 F-AMT is the most suitable amino acid transporter-targeting radiotracer for tumor imaging, regardless of low synthesis yield and requirement of an onsite cyclotron to produce 18 F. "
ABSTRACT: This study was to develop an efficient synthesis of (99m)Tc-O-[3-(1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclohexadecane)-propyl]-α-methyl tyrosine ((99m)Tc-N4-AMT) and evaluate its potential in cancer imaging. N4-AMT was synthesized by reacting N4-oxalate and 3-bromopropyl AMT (N-BOC, ethyl ester). In vitro cellular uptake kinetics of (99m)Tc-N4-AMT was assessed in rat mammary tumor cells. Tissue distribution of the radiotracer was determined in normal rats at 0.5-4 h, while planar imaging was performed in mammary tumor-bearing rats at 30-120 min. The total synthesis yield of N4-AMT was 14%. Cellular uptake of (99m)Tc-N4-AMT was significantly higher than that of (99m)Tc-N4. Planar imaging revealed that (99m)Tc-N4-AMT rendered greater tumor/muscle ratios than (99m)Tc-N4. N4-AMT could be synthesized with a considerably high yield. Our in vitro and in vivo data suggest that (99m)Tc-N4-AMT, a novel amino acid-based radiotracer, efficiently enters breast cancer cells, effectively distinguishes mammary tumors from normal tissues, and thus holds the promise for breast cancer imaging.BioMed Research International 04/2011; 2011:276907. DOI:10.1155/2011/276907 · 2.71 Impact Factor