Conserved Epitopes in the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Family of Diabetes Autoantigens
Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USA. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
(Impact Factor: 4.38).
01/2009; 1150(1):245-7. DOI: 10.1196/annals.1447.035
IA2 and phogrin are important targets of humoral and cell-mediated autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes in man. They belong to a conserved subfamily of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) associated with the regulatory pathway of secretion. To examine potential cross-reactivity between PTP family members we tested sera from T1D patients for reactivity to IA2, and the Drosophila (FLYDA) and C. elegans (IDA) orthologs using radioimmunoprecipitation assays of (35)S Met-labeled in vitro translated products of the cytosolic domains of these proteins. Approximately 80% of sera reacted with at least one probe. Of these, 82.5% showed reactivity to human IA2, 74.1% to FLYDA, and 33.7% to IDA. The majority of sera that bound FLYDA and/or IDA also recognized IA2. This raises the possibility that in some cases reactivity to IA2 may have arisen by molecular mimicry.
Figures in this publication
Available from: Massimo Pietropaolo
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine whether antigenic determinants localized within the extracellular domain of the neuroendocrine autoantigen tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 are targets of humoral responses in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Previous studies indicated that the immunodominant region of IA-2 is localized within its intracellular domain (IA-2ic; amino acids 601-979). We analyzed 333 subjects from the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh study, 102 of whom progressed to insulin-requiring diabetes (prediabetics). Autoantibodies from these individuals were initially assayed for ICA512bdc (Barbara Davis Center amino acids 257-556; 630-979), IA-2ic (amino acids 601-979), and IA-2 full-length (amino acids 1-979) in addition to islet cell antibody (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase, 65-kDa isoform, and insulin autoantibodies. We identified an autoantibody response reactive with the extracellular domain of IA-2 that is associated with very high risk of T1DM progression. Relatives with no detectable autoantibodies against ICA512bdc (or IA-2ic) exhibited antibody responses against the IA-2 full-length peptide (log rank, P = 0.008). This effect was also observed in first-degree relatives who were positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase, 65-kDa isoform (log rank, P = 0.026) or at least two islet autoantibodies but were negative for ICA512bdc (log rank, P = 0.022). Competitive binding experiments and immunoprecipitation of the IA-2 extracellular domain (amino acid residues 26-577) further lend support for the presence of autoantibodies reactive with new antigenic determinants within the extracellular domain of IA-2. In summary, the addition of measurements of autoantibodies reactive with the IA-2 extracellular domain to assays geared to assess the progression of autoimmunity to clinical T1DM may more accurately characterize this risk. This has considerable implications not only for stratifying high diabetes risk but also facilitating the search for pathogenic epitopes to enable the design of peptide-based immunotherapies that may prevent the progression to overt T1DM at its preclinical stages.
Endocrinology 06/2010; 151(6):2528-37. DOI:10.1210/en.2009-1257 · 4.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22) gene encodes for lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase. Recent studies demonstrated the association between the +1858T, -1123G>C variants of PTPN22 gene and type 1 diabetes mellitus in Caucasian and Japanese populations. This study examined the relationship between the polymorphism of PTPN22 gene and latent autoimmune 1 diabetes in adults (LADA) in Chinese Hans. We studied 229 adult Chinese patients with LADA (LADA group) and 210 healthy volunteers (control group). The -1123G>C and +1858C>T polymorphisms of PTPN22 gene were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Further, genotypic/allelic frequencies and clinical characteristics were compared between two groups. There was a significant difference of frequencies of the -1123G>C polymorphism between LADA and control groups (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.24-3.2; P = 0.001). However, no significant differences in the +1858C>T genotypic (CC, CT) and allelic (C, T) frequencies were found. Furthermore, the frequencies of the -1123 GC, CC genotype in male patients with LADA were significantly higher compared with male healthy volunteers (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.21-2.26; P = 0.005). The analysis of covariance demonstrated no difference between glycosylated hemoglobin, body mass index, duration of diabetes, C-peptide, and GAD-Ab titer between the group carrying GC/CC and the group without allele C. In conclusion, the -1123G>C promoter polymorphism of PTPN22 gene, but not the +1858C>T variant, is associated with LADA in adult Chinese Hans.
Cell biochemistry and biophysics 09/2011; 62(2):273-9. DOI:10.1007/s12013-011-9291-4 · 1.68 Impact Factor
Available from: europepmc.org
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Identification of the major humoral epitopes in zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) will expand the range of biomarkers for human type 1 diabetes and may provide clues to the mechanisms governing disease progression. Our initial studies suggested that most ZnT8-reactive sera recognize conformational epitopes in the final 100aa region of the molecule. Subsequently we identified residue 325 as a major determinant in two epitopes linked to a genetic polymorphism with high minor allele frequency (rs13266634). The goal of the current study was to extend this analysis to identify non-polymorphic epitopes in ZnT8.
Although the carboxy-terminal domains of human and mouse ZnT8 are ∼80% identical, the mouse probe is not precipitated by the majority of human type 1 diabetes sera. Thus to identify key residues we systematically 'humanized' the mouse probe at each position that differs and evaluated the probes in radio-immunoassays.
As previously reported, only the alteration of Q>R325 by itself showed any restoration of binding to human sera. However, when clusters of structurally adjacent variant residues were also changed an additional region of antigenicity was revealed that depended on residues R332, E333, K336, and K340. Using a panel of 112 sera from recent onset subjects tested with the hC325Q and m-R325R332E333K336K340 probes, 39.3% of the subjects were ZnT8(Q)A+ , of which 38.6% (17/44) also recognized the mouse probe.
We conclude that the mR-REKK probe identifies a third major epitope in ZnT8 that may add to the diagnostic utility of measuring autoantibodies to this molecule.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 11/2011; 27(8):883-6. DOI:10.1002/dmrr.1266 · 3.55 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.