Fourier analysis of vertical ground reaction forces in dogs with unilateral hind limb lameness caused by degenerative disease of the hip joint and in dogs without lameness

Clinic for Small Animal Surgery and Ophthalmology, Clinical Department of Small Animals and Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria.
American Journal of Veterinary Research (Impact Factor: 1.34). 02/2009; 70(1):118-26. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.70.1.118
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the applicability of Fourier analysis for assessment of ground reaction forces (GRFs) and differentiation between dogs with unilateral hind limb lameness caused by degenerative joint disease of the hip (DJD-H) and dogs without lameness.
37 dogs with or without unilateral DJD-H.
Data were obtained from other studies and analyzed retrospectively. Among the 37 dogs, 20 had unilateral DJD-H and 9 (non-Belgian Malinois breeds) had no lameness; another 8 were nonlame Belgian Malinois (radiographically confirmed Fédération Cinologique International classification A [ie, no hip dysplasia or DJD-H]). Gait data acquisition was performed as dogs walked on a treadmill with integrated force platforms. The peak vertical force, mean vertical force, and vertical impulse were compared among the 3 groups. Fourier analysis was performed on the force-time curves for the vertical GRF, and calculated Fourier coefficients were compared within and between groups.
Lameness in the hind limbs with DJD-H was detectable via conventional analysis of the GRF as well as via Fourier analysis. However, subtle gait aberrations in the forelimbs of the dogs with DJD-H were detected solely via Fourier analysis of GRFs and remained undetected via conventional analysis.
Results support the applicability of Fourier analysis for evaluation of force-time curves of GRFs. Fourier analysis can reveal subtle alterations of gait that might otherwise remain inapparent; however, further investigation is necessary before this method can be routinely applied for lameness detection in dogs.

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    • " studies have shown that dogs bear a greater proportion of their BW on the forelimbs ( e . g . , Krüger , ' 43 ; Bryant et al . , ' 87 ; Budsberg et al . , ' 87 ; Rumph et al . , ' 94 ; DeCamp , ' 97 ; Lee et al . , ' 99 ; Bertram et al . , 2000 ; McLaughlin , 2001 ; Fanchon et al . , 2006 ; Bockstahler et al . , 2007 ; Walter and Carrier , 2007 ; Katic et al . , 2009 ; Mölsa et al . , 2010 ; Kim et al . , 2011 ; Voss et al . , 2011 ) and this is , as this and one previous study examining dogs between PW4 and PW15 show ( Biknevicius et al . , ' 97 ) , true from early on in life . Therefore , in puppies and adult dogs , the forelimbs consistently play a greater role in supporting the body than the hin"
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    • "In the Beagles, as in other mesomorphic breeds, the forelimbs bear $60% and the hind limbs $40% of the BW (Rumph et al., 1994; Bertram et al., 2000; Katic et al., 2009; Abdelhadi et al., 2013). Due to this difference in loading, the dog's mechanism to cope with fore vs. hind limb lameness was expected to differ (O'Connor et al., 1989; Rumph et al., 1993, 1995; Dupuis et al., 1994; Jevens et al., 1996; Katic et al., 2009). However, the comparison of the changes in the vertical GRF values and the temporal gait parameters shows some striking similarities. "
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