Fourier analysis of vertical ground reaction forces in dogs with unilateral hind limb lameness caused by degenerative disease of the hip joint and in dogs without lameness

Clinic for Small Animal Surgery and Ophthalmology, Clinical Department of Small Animals and Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria.
American Journal of Veterinary Research (Impact Factor: 1.34). 02/2009; 70(1):118-26. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.70.1.118
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the applicability of Fourier analysis for assessment of ground reaction forces (GRFs) and differentiation between dogs with unilateral hind limb lameness caused by degenerative joint disease of the hip (DJD-H) and dogs without lameness.
37 dogs with or without unilateral DJD-H.
Data were obtained from other studies and analyzed retrospectively. Among the 37 dogs, 20 had unilateral DJD-H and 9 (non-Belgian Malinois breeds) had no lameness; another 8 were nonlame Belgian Malinois (radiographically confirmed Fédération Cinologique International classification A [ie, no hip dysplasia or DJD-H]). Gait data acquisition was performed as dogs walked on a treadmill with integrated force platforms. The peak vertical force, mean vertical force, and vertical impulse were compared among the 3 groups. Fourier analysis was performed on the force-time curves for the vertical GRF, and calculated Fourier coefficients were compared within and between groups.
Lameness in the hind limbs with DJD-H was detectable via conventional analysis of the GRF as well as via Fourier analysis. However, subtle gait aberrations in the forelimbs of the dogs with DJD-H were detected solely via Fourier analysis of GRFs and remained undetected via conventional analysis.
Results support the applicability of Fourier analysis for evaluation of force-time curves of GRFs. Fourier analysis can reveal subtle alterations of gait that might otherwise remain inapparent; however, further investigation is necessary before this method can be routinely applied for lameness detection in dogs.

25 Reads
  • Source
    • " studies have shown that dogs bear a greater proportion of their BW on the forelimbs ( e . g . , Krüger , ' 43 ; Bryant et al . , ' 87 ; Budsberg et al . , ' 87 ; Rumph et al . , ' 94 ; DeCamp , ' 97 ; Lee et al . , ' 99 ; Bertram et al . , 2000 ; McLaughlin , 2001 ; Fanchon et al . , 2006 ; Bockstahler et al . , 2007 ; Walter and Carrier , 2007 ; Katic et al . , 2009 ; Mölsa et al . , 2010 ; Kim et al . , 2011 ; Voss et al . , 2011 ) and this is , as this and one previous study examining dogs between PW4 and PW15 show ( Biknevicius et al . , ' 97 ) , true from early on in life . Therefore , in puppies and adult dogs , the forelimbs consistently play a greater role in supporting the body than the hin"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Weight support patterns vary widely among mammals. Differences in how much of the body weight is supported by the fore- versus the hind-limbs are well documented among and within species. Intraindividual variation due to ontogenetic processes has been studied in several hindlimb-dominated species and consistently showed a caudal shift in the limbs' support roles. We hypothesized that forelimb-dominated species exhibit a cranial shift in their support pattern and tested this hypothesis by examining the vertical ground reaction forces in growing dogs. Six male Beagle siblings were studied from 9 to 51 postnatal weeks (PW) of age while they trotted on an instrumented treadmill. Ontogenetic shifting in fore-to-hind support was evaluated using vertical force ratios (i.e., peak and impulse) as well as the stance time ratio of the fore- and the hind-limbs. Because morphological and kinematic characteristics influence weight support patterns, changes in body shape (i.e., trunk shape), and average limb position were determined. As in adult dogs, the forelimbs carried a greater proportion of the body weight than the hindlimbs at all ages. When the dogs were younger, peak vertical force occurred earlier during stance in the hindlimbs but not the forelimbs. Both the increasing ratio of the vertical force and the increasing ratio of the stance times indicate an increasing weight support by the forelimbs (i.e., 59% at PW9 vs. 63% at PW51). The observed ontogenetic changes in trunk shape and average limb angle were consistent with this cranial shift in weight support. J. Exp. Zool. 9999A: 1-11, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A Ecological Genetics and Physiology 06/2014; 321(5). DOI:10.1002/jez.1856 · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In the Beagles, as in other mesomorphic breeds, the forelimbs bear $60% and the hind limbs $40% of the BW (Rumph et al., 1994; Bertram et al., 2000; Katic et al., 2009; Abdelhadi et al., 2013). Due to this difference in loading, the dog's mechanism to cope with fore vs. hind limb lameness was expected to differ (O'Connor et al., 1989; Rumph et al., 1993, 1995; Dupuis et al., 1994; Jevens et al., 1996; Katic et al., 2009). However, the comparison of the changes in the vertical GRF values and the temporal gait parameters shows some striking similarities. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated adaptations in vertical force and temporal gait parameters to hind limb lameness in walking and trotting dogs. Eight clinically normal adult Beagles were allowed to ambulate on an instrumented treadmill at their preferred speed while the ground reaction forces were recorded for all limbs before and after a moderate, reversible, hind limb lameness was induced. At both gaits, vertical force was decreased in the ipsilateral and increased in the contralateral hind limb. While peak force increased in the ipsilateral forelimb, no changes were observed for mean force and impulse when the dogs walked or trotted. In the contralateral forelimb, the peak force was unchanged, but the mean force significantly increased during walking and trotting; vertical impulse increased only during walking. Relative stance duration increased in the ipsilateral hind limb when the dogs trotted. In the contralateral fore and hind limbs, relative stance duration increased during walking and trotting, but decreased in the ipsilateral forelimb during walking. Analysis of load redistribution and temporal gait changes during hind limb lameness showed that compensatory mechanisms were similar regardless of gait. The centre of mass consistently shifted to the contralateral body side and cranio-caudally to the side opposite the affected limb. These biomechanical changes indicate substantial short- and long-term effects of hind limb lameness on the musculoskeletal system.
    The Veterinary Journal 05/2013; 197(3). DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.04.009 · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "These values were normalized to body mass (N/ kg and N/kg/s, respectively). Each variable was expressed as a percentage of the total force-impulse exerted by all limbs for this was used the formula: X% (limb A) = F (limb A) / (F (limb A) +F (limb B) +F (limb C) +F (limb D) ), where X% is the percentage of body mass distributed through the limb, limbs A, B, C and D represent the dog´s four limbs and F represent force-impulse value of the limb being evaluated (Katic et al 2009). We calculated the mean value of three gait cycles per limb and these values were used for the gait analysis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: La displasia del codo canino (CED) es un complejo de enfermedades que resultan en (OA) osteoartritis. CED incluye la no unión del proceso ancóneo (UAP), fragmentación del proceso coronoides medial (FMCP), osteocondritis (OC) del cóndilo medial del húmero e incongruencia del codo. Una perra con OC del cóndilo medial del húmero y FMCP fue tratada por artroscopia mediante microfracturas del hueso subcondral y remoción, respectivamente, y recibió dosis intra-articulares de concentrados autólogos de plaquetas (APC). La paciente fue evaluada mediante examen clínico, citología del líquido sinovial, evaluación radiográfica y evaluación en plataforma de fuerza, antes de la cirugía y a los 15, 30, 60 y 90 días postoperatorios. La paciente alcanzó recuperación clínica completa al 60 día postoperatorio, acompañado de mejoría en la citología del líquido sinovial y en los resultados cinemáticos. Sin embargo, la evaluación radiológica mostró un leve desarrollo de OA. Los resultados de este informe pueden sugerir el potencial de uso de APC como una terapia de acción modificadora sintomática en el tratamiento de OA secundaria a la displasia de codo en el perro.
    Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 12/2012; 45(2):213-217. DOI:10.4067/S0301-732X2013000200015 · 0.31 Impact Factor
Show more