Article

The attitudes toward massage (ATOM) scale: reliability, validity, and associated findings.

University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA.
Journal of bodywork and movement therapies 02/2009; 13(1):22-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2008.01.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite the key role of attitudes in guiding behavior, no systematic examination of attitudes toward massage has been conducted and no standard assessments have been created. We developed the attitudes toward massage (ATOM) scale, a nine-item measure of an overall attitude toward massage that includes two distinct subscales assessing the attitudes of Massage as Healthful and Massage as Pleasant. These subscales are reliable (alpha>.70 and >.80, respectively), covary with major personality traits and dispositional sensitivities, and are positively correlated with broader attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine. Clinical evidence suggests that these attitudes change in response to receiving massage, though further research is needed. Supplemental items administered with the ATOM illustrate a general preference for female massage therapists while also showing this preference to be stronger in men. Attitudes pertaining to massage and sexual arousal, which may stand in the way of trying massage for some persons, are also examined. With or without the supplemental items, the ATOM scale is an easily administered measure for assessing attitudes toward massage that can be used in research or practice settings.

2 Bookmarks
 · 
165 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: No consistent relationship exists between pre-treatment expectations and therapeutic benefit from various complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies in clinical trials. However, many different expectancy measures have been used in those studies, with no validated questionnaires clearly focused on CAM and pain. We undertook cognitive interviews as part of a process to develop and validate such a questionnaire. We reviewed questions about expectations of benefits of acupuncture, chiropractic, massage, or yoga for pain. Components of the questions - verbs, nouns, response options, terms and phrases describing back pain - were identified. Using seven different cognitive interview scripts, we conducted 39 interviews to evaluate how individuals with chronic low back pain understood these individual components in the context of expectancy questions for a therapy they had not yet received. Chosen items were those with the greatest agreement and least confusion among participants, and were closest to the meanings intended by the investigators. The questionnaire drafted for psychometric evaluation had 18 items covering various domains of expectancy. "Back pain" was the most consistently interpreted descriptor for this condition. The most understandable response options were 0-10 scales, a structure used throughout the questionnaire, with 0 always indicating no change, and 10 anchored with an absolute descriptor such as "complete relief". The use of words to describe midpoints was found to be confusing. The word "expect" held different and shifting meanings for participants. Thus paired items comparing "hope" and "realistically expect" were chosen to evaluate 5 different aspects of treatment expectations (back pain; back dysfunction and global effects; impact of back pain on specific areas of life; sleep, mood, and energy; coping). "Impact of back pain" on various areas of life was found to be a consistently meaningful concept, and more global than "interference". Cognitive interviews identified wordings with considerable agreement among both participants and investigators. Some items widely used in clinical studies had different meanings to participants than investigators, or were confusing to participants. The final 18-item questionnaire is undergoing psychometric evaluation with goals of streamlining as well as identifying best items for use when questionnaire length is constrained.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 14(1):39. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of patient's attitudes toward massage on pressure pain sensitivity and the immune effects of myofascial release in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Twenty BCS participated. They presented to the laboratory at the same time of the day on 2 occasions separated by 2 weeks. At each session, they received either a myofascial release technique or control (special attention) intervention. Salivary flow rate, cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations, and α-amylase activity were obtained before and immediately after intervention from saliva samples. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the cervical spine and temporalis muscle were assessed bilaterally. The attitude toward massage (ATOM) scale was collected before the first session in all BCS. The analysis of covariance revealed a significant intervention × time interaction for salivary flow rate (P = .010), but not α-amylase (P = .111), IgA (P = .655), and cortisol (P = .363) in favor of the experimental group: BCS exhibited an increase of salivary flow rate after myofascial release intervention. When the ATOM scale was included in the analysis, significant influence on IgA (P = .001) was found: BCS with positive attitude had a significant increase in IgA (P > .05). The analysis of covariance did not find a significant intervention × time interaction for PPT over the cervical spine or temporalis muscle, with no effect of ATOM scales for PPT (P > .05). The current study suggests that myofascial release may lead to an immediate increase in salivary flow rate in BCS with cancer-related fatigue. We also found that the effect of myofascial release on immune function was modulated by a positive patient's attitude toward massage.
    Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics 02/2012; 35(2):94-100. · 1.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire designed to assess the patient's affective, cognitive, and perceptual state during treatment administration. Methods: 362 individuals (214 females, 148 males, mean age 54.6 years) with predominantly musculoskeletal or dental problems participated in the study. Patients responded to the questionnaire immediately following a treatment. The questionnaire included items of 9 proposed scales devised to assess mood, psychological tension, sleepiness, mental absorption, treatment appraisal, perceived cooperation during treatment administration, perceived somatosensory intensity of treatment as well as negative and positive bodily sensations during treatment. Treatments were administered in 2 spa centers, a clinic for physical medicine and rehabilitation and a clinic for dentistry. Treatments investigated were among others dental treatment, massage, packs, baths, relaxation training, exercise, and acupuncture. Results: The proposed scales were confirmed. Scales had adequate to good reliability and validity. All scales significantly distinguished between treatments. Conclusion: The devised questionnaire has adequate properties to assess patients' experiences during treatment administration. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
    Forschende Komplementärmedizin / Research in Complementary Medicine 01/2013; 20(3):205-12. · 1.65 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
58 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014