The aim of this study was to explore, using a self-administered questionnaire, university students' knowledge of, perceptions of, and attitudes toward epilepsy. Approximately 1.7% considered epilepsy a contagious disease, and 10.5%, a form of insanity. About 25 and 34% of students thought that epilepsy is caused by an evil spirit and the evil eye, respectively, and 17.4% thought epilepsy is punishment from God. About 8% believed patients with epilepsy should not marry, and 12.5% thought they should not have children. Similarly, 11.7% thought patients with epilepsy cannot think or judge like people without epilepsy, and 26.2% would not employ someone with epilepsy in a clerical job. Approximately 56% objected to marrying someone with epilepsy, and 12.5% would not allow their child to play with a child with epilepsy. In conclusion, university students in Kuwait have a vague knowledge of the causes of epilepsy. Misconceptions about and negative attitudes toward epilepsy are unexpectedly high among these university students.
"Limited knowledge of epilepsy was reported in seven studies [59,62–67], and average knowledge was reported in four studies    . Negative attitudes toward epilepsy were reported in seven studies       . However, moderately positive attitudes were reported in two studies  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study reviewed research conducted on the psychological aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Several databases (Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, and PsycInfo) were searched using the following two sets of search words: (1) Arab, Jordan, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Yemen, Tunisia, Libya, Morocco, Algiers, Palestine, Mauritania, Djibouti, Sudan, Comoros, and Somalia; and (2) epilepsy, seizure disorders, and convulsive disorders. Fifty-one studies were conducted in 12 Arab states. Social/emotional, employment, and other problems; knowledge and attitudes; and quality of life (QOL) were the most commonly measured parameters of psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Arab countries. Results revealed elevated levels of depression and anxiety, a decline in cognitive function, various behavioral problems, sexual dysfunction, and underemployment among persons with epilepsy (PWE). Misconceptions about epilepsy were found to be prevalent. While many studies reported limited knowledge of epilepsy, some studies found an average knowledge. Negative attitudes toward epilepsy were reported in most studies, and moderately positive attitudes were reported in some studies. Finally, PWE showed low overall QOL scores in the majority of studies.
"In Kuwait, the focus of this paper, 22.5–64.3% of marriages are between spouses who are blood relatives (Tadmouri et al., 2009). The limited data available suggest that awareness of intellectual disability in the Middle East is low (Bener & Ghuloum, 2011) and that belief in supernatural causes of intellectual disability is high (Al-Rashed et al., 2009). This parallels the importance of supernatural beliefs about mental illness in Arab contexts (Al-Adawi, Dorvlo, & Al-Ismaily, 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence on lay beliefs and stigma associated with intellectual disability in an Arab context is almost non-existent. This study examined awareness of intellectual disability, causal and intervention beliefs and social distance in Kuwait. These were compared to a UK sample to examine differences in lay conceptions across cultures. 537 university students in Kuwait and 571 students in the UK completed a web-based survey asking them to respond to a diagnostically unlabelled vignette of a man presenting with symptoms of mild intellectual disability. They rated their agreement with 22 causal items as possible causes for the difficulties depicted in the vignette, the perceived helpfulness of 22 interventions, and four social distance items using a 7-point Likert scale. Only 8% of Kuwait students, yet 33% of UK students identified possible intellectual disability in the vignette. Medium to large differences between the two samples were observed on seven of the causal items, and 10 of the intervention items. Against predictions, social distance did not differ. Causal beliefs mediated the relationship between recognition of intellectual disability and social distance, but their mediating role differed by sample. The findings are discussed in relation to cultural practices and values, and in relation to attribution theory. In view of the apparent positive effect of awareness of the symptoms of intellectual disability on social distance, both directly and through the mediating effects of causal beliefs, promoting increased awareness of intellectual disability and inclusive practices should be a priority, particularly in countries such as Kuwait where it appears to be low.
Research in developmental disabilities 09/2013; 34(11):3896-3905. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.07.030 · 4.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel method for generation of radar waveforms having both
frequency shift keying (FSK) and phase shift keying (PSK) interior
coding is considered. When PSK modulation is used in a pulse compression
radar the radar bandwidth can be increased without increasing peak
power. The range resolution is directly proportional to the coded
pulsewidth. To achieve resolution in both range and velocity, the
thumbtack property of the radar ambiguity function must be preserved. It
is shown that by combining FSK and PSK modulation using Costas arrays
and Welti codes a significant reduction in sidelobe values will occur.
In addition, inherent combined spread spectrum characteristics yield a
waveform with excellent ECCM properties
Radar Conference, 1990., Record of the IEEE 1990 International; 06/1990
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