Neuroadaptations in the cellular and postsynaptic group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 and Homer proteins following extinction of cocaine self-administration.
ABSTRACT This study examined the role of group1 metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 and associated postsynaptic scaffolding protein Homer1b/c in behavioral plasticity after three withdrawal treatments from cocaine self-administration. Rats self-administered cocaine or saline for 14 days followed by a withdrawal period during which rats underwent extinction training, remained in their home cages, or were placed in the self-administration chambers in the absence of extinction. Subsequently, the tissue level and distribution of proteins in the synaptosomal fraction associated with the postsynaptic density were examined. Cocaine self-administration followed by home cage exposure reduced the mGluR5 protein in nucleus accumbens (NA) shell and dorsolateral striatum. While extinction training reduced mGluR5 protein in NAshell, NAcore and dorsolateral striatum did not display any change. The scaffolding protein PSD95 increased in NAcore of the extinguished animals. Extinction of drug seeking was associated with a significant decrease in the synaptosomal mGluR5 protein in NAshell and an increase in dorsolateral striatum, while that of NAcore was not modified. Interestingly, both Homer1b/c and PSD95 scaffolding proteins were decreased in the synaptosomal fraction after extinction training in NAshell but not NAcore. Extinguished drug-seeking behavior was also associated with an increase in the synaptosomal actin proteins in dorsolateral striatum. Therefore, extinction of cocaine seeking is associated with neuroadaptations in mGluR5 expression and distribution that are region-specific and consist of extinction-induced reversal of cocaine-induced adaptations as well as emergent extinction-induced alterations. Concurrent plasticity in the scaffolding proteins further suggests that mGluR5 receptor neuroadaptations may have implications for synaptic function.
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ABSTRACT: The glutamatergic system plays an important role in mediating neurobehavioral effects of ethanol. Metabotropic glutamate receptors subtype 5 (mGluR5) are modulators of glutamatergic neurotransmission and are abundant in brain regions known to be involved in ethanol self-administration. Here, we studied the effects of 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), a highly potent, noncompetitive mGlu5 receptor antagonist, on voluntary ethanol consumption and relapse behavior. For this purpose, we used two models for the measurement of relapse behavior: (i) reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior by drug-associated cues and (ii) the alcohol deprivation effect in long-term ethanol-consuming rats. In the first set of experiments, rats were trained to lever press for ethanol in the presence of a distinct set of cues. After extinction, the animals were exposed to the respective cues that initiated reinstatement of responding. A response-contingent ethanol prime further enhanced responding compared to the conditioned cues alone. Under these conditions, MPEP (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) attenuated ethanol seeking significantly and in a dose-related manner. However, at the highest dose, MPEP also decreased the number of inactive lever responses. In the second set of experiments, rats with 1 year of ethanol experience and repeated deprivation phases were used. A subchronic treatment with MPEP (twice daily; 0, 3, and 10 mg/kg) resulted in a significant and dose-dependent reduction of the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE). Although the same MPEP treatment regimen decreased baseline drinking, this effect was not as pronounced as on the ADE. These results show in two commonly used models of relapse to ethanol that pharmacological targeting of mGlu5 receptors may be a promising approach for the treatment of alcoholism.Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2004; 29(5):921-8. · 8.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Elevated dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens is thought to be a primary mediator of addiction to cocaine. However, repeated exposure to cocaine is associated with the recruitment of glutamate transmission. This poses the possibility that the behaviors characterizing cocaine addiction, such as craving-induced relapse, may not be preferentially mediated by dopamine transmission. An animal model of relapse was used to demonstrate that glutamate, and not dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens, is a primary mediator of cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. Reinstatement was produced by a systemic injection of cocaine or by the microinjection of the glutamate receptor agonist AMPA or dopamine into the nucleus accumbens. It was found that microinjection of an AMPA receptor antagonist into the nucleus accumbens blocked reinstatement by all compounds, whereas a dopamine receptor antagonist was effective only in blocking reinstatement by intra-accumbens dopamine administration. These data suggest an important role for nucleus accumbens glutamate and not dopamine transmission in cocaine-induced relapse to drug-seeking behavior.Journal of Neuroscience 09/2000; 20(15):RC89. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Relapse to cocaine use after prolonged abstinence is an important clinical problem. This relapse is often induced by exposure to cues associated with cocaine use. To account for the persistent propensity for relapse, it has been suggested that cue-induced cocaine craving increases over the first several weeks of abstinence and remains high for extended periods. We and others identified an analogous phenomenon in rats that was termed 'incubation of cocaine craving': time-dependent increases in cue-induced cocaine-seeking over the first months after withdrawal from self-administered cocaine. Cocaine-seeking requires the activation of glutamate projections that excite receptors for alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) in the nucleus accumbens. Here we show that the number of synaptic AMPA receptors in the accumbens is increased after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine self-administration by the addition of new AMPA receptors lacking glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2). Furthermore, we show that these new receptors mediate the incubation of cocaine craving. Our results indicate that GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors could be a new target for drug development for the treatment of cocaine addiction. We propose that after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine, increased numbers of synaptic AMPA receptors combined with the higher conductance of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors causes increased reactivity of accumbens neurons to cocaine-related cues, leading to an intensification of drug craving and relapse.Nature 08/2008; 454(7200):118-21. · 38.60 Impact Factor