Plasticity of the Attentional Network After Brain Injury and Cognitive Rehabilitation
ABSTRACT This study aimed to delineate the cerebral attentional network in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and assess for adaptations in this network in response to a rehabilitation intervention.
Seventeen patients with TBI and 15 healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a visuospatial attention task. Ten TBI patients who successfully completed attentional training had a follow-up fMRI.
In the TBI patients, fMRI analysis showed more activation in the frontal and temporoparietal lobes, as well as less activation in the anterior cingulated gyrus, SMA, and temporooccipital regions compared to the healthy subjects. Following cognitive training, the TBI patients improved performance of attention tasks accompanied by changes in attentional network activation; the activity of the frontal lobe decreased, whereas activation of the anterior cingulate cortices and precuneus increased.
These findings demonstrate the plasticity and training induced redistribution of the visuospatial attentional network in TBI patients.
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ABSTRACT: Nearly 1.7 million Americans sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. These injuries can result in physical, emotional, and cognitive consequences. While many individuals receive cognitive rehabilitation from occupational therapists (OTs), the interdisciplinary nature of TBI research makes it difficult to remain up-to-date on relevant findings. We conducted a literature review to identify and summarize interdisciplinary evidence-based practice targeting cognitive rehabilitation for civilian adults with TBI. Our review summarizes TBI background, and our cognitive remediation section focuses on the findings from 37 recent (since 2006) empirical articles directly related to cognitive rehabilitation for individuals (i.e., excluding special populations such as veterans or athletes). This manuscript is offered as a tool for OTs engaged in cognitive rehabilitation and as a means to highlight arenas where more empirical, interdisciplinary research is needed.OTJR Occupation Participation Health 02/2015; 35(1):5-22. DOI:10.1177/1539449214561765 · 0.80 Impact Factor
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 12/2014; 8:428. DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00428 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The traumatic biomechanical forces associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) typically impart diffuse, as opposed to focal, brain injury potentially disrupting the structural connectivity between neural networks. Graph theoretical analysis using diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess injury-related differences in structural connectivity between 23 children (age 11-16 years) with mTBI and 20 age-matched children with isolated orthopedic injuries (OI) scanned within 96 h postinjury. The distribution of hub regions and the associations between alterations in regional network measures and symptom burden, as assessed by the postconcussion symptom scale score (PCSS), were also examined. In comparison to the OI group, the mTBI group was found to have significantly higher small-worldness (P < 0.0001), higher normalized clustering coefficients (P < 0.0001), higher normalized characteristic path length (P = 0.007), higher modularity (P = 0.0005), and lower global efficiency (P < 0.0001). A series of hub regions in the mTBI group were found to have significant alterations in regional network measures including nodal degree, nodal clustering coefficient, and nodal between-ness centrality. Correlation analysis showed that PCSS total score acquired at the time of imaging was significantly associated with the nodal degree of two hubs, the superior frontal gyrus at orbital section and the middle frontal gyrus. These findings provide new evidence of acute white matter alteration at both global and regional network level following mTBI in children furthering our understanding of underlying mechanisms of acute neurological insult associated with mTBI. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Human Brain Mapping 02/2015; 36(2). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22664 · 6.92 Impact Factor