Early but not late administration of glucagon-like peptide-2 following ileo-cecal resection augments putative intestinal stem cell expansion
ABSTRACT Expansion of intestinal progenitors and putative stem cells (pISC) occurs early and transiently following ileo-cecal resection (ICR). The mechanism controlling this process is not defined. We hypothesized that glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) would augment jejunal pISC expansion only when administered to mice immediately after ICR. Since recent reports demonstrated increases in intestinal insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I following GLP-2 administration, we further hypothesized that increased intestinal IGF-I expression would correlate with pISC expansion following ICR. To assess this, GLP-2 or vehicle was administered to mice either immediately after resection (early) or before tissue harvest 6 wk following ICR (late). Histological analysis quantified proliferation and intestinal morphometrics. Serum levels of GLP-2 were measured by ELISA and jejunal IGF-I mRNA by qRT-PCR. Expansion of jejunal pISC was assessed by fluorescent-activated cell sorting of side population cells, immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated beta-catenin at serine 552 (a pISC marker), percent of crypt fission, and total numbers of crypts per jejunal circumference. We found that early but not late GLP-2 treatment after ICR significantly augmented pISC expansion. Increases in jejunal IGF-I mRNA correlated temporally with early pISC expansion and effects of GLP-2. Early GLP-2 increased crypt fission and accelerated adaptive increases in crypt number and intestinal caliber. GLP-2 increased proliferation and intestinal morphometrics in all groups. This study shows that, in mice, GLP-2 promotes jejunal pISC expansion only in the period immediately following ICR. This is associated with increased IGF-I and accelerated adaptive increases in mucosal mass. These data provide clinical rationale relevant to the optimal timing of GLP-2 in patients with intestinal failure.
- SourceAvailable from: Maria Andrea Azcárate-Peril
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- "Post-ICR samples were collected at 7, 14 and 28 days following surgery as indicated. We selected day 7 after ICR because at this time point we have previously reported that the expansion of crypts that contribute to long term adaptation is initiated along with acute changes in proliferation and crypt depth and villus height [24,27,42]. At later time points of 14 and 28 days, the acute increases in proliferation, crypt depth and villus height are decreasing whereas sustained increases in the overall number of jenunal cypts persist . "
ABSTRACT: Ileocecal resection (ICR) is a commonly required surgical intervention in unmanageable Crohn's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis. However, the impact of ICR, and the concomitant doses of antibiotic routinely given with ICR, on the intestinal commensal microbiota has not been determined. In this study, wild-type C57BL6 mice were subjected to ICR and concomitant single intraperitoneal antibiotic injection. Intestinal lumen contents were collected from jejunum and colon at 7, 14, and 28 days after resection and compared to non-ICR controls. Samples were analyzed by16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. The intestinal microbiota was altered by 7 days after ICR and accompanying antibiotic treatment, with decreased diversity in the colon. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) decreased from 11.8 ± 1.8 in non-ICR controls to 5.9 ± 0.5 in 7-day post-ICR samples. There were also minor effects in the jejunum where PD values decreased from 8.3 ± 0.4 to 7.5 ± 1.4. PCoA analysis indicated that bacterial populations 28 days post-ICR differed significantly from non-ICR controls. Moreover, colon and jejunum bacterial populations were remarkably similar 28 days after resection, whereas the initial communities differed markedly. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in jejunum and colon before ICR; however, Firmicutes became the vastly predominant phylum in jejunum and colon 28 days after ICR. Although the microbiota returned towards a homeostatic state, with re-establishment of Firmicutes as the predominant phylum, we did not detect Bacteroidetes in the colon 28 days after ICR. In the jejunum Bacteroidetes was detected at a 0.01% abundance after this time period. The changes in jejunal and colonic microbiota induced by ICR and concomitant antibiotic injection may therefore be considered as potential regulators of post-surgical adaptive growth or function, and in a setting of active IBD, potential contributors to post-surgical pathophysiology of disease recurrence.PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e73140. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073140 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The medical management of short bowel syndrome frequently requires lifelong parenteral nutrition. Methods of increasing intestinal absorption and reducing parenteral nutrition dependence, by improving postresection intestinal adaptation, are increasingly being explored. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is an important intestinotrophic growth factor and mediator of intestinal adaptation. This review summarizes our current understanding of GLP-2 physiology and provides an update on clinical trials in short bowel syndrome and related conditions. There is growing understanding how the effects of GLP-2 are mediated by downstream effectors such as insulin-like growth factor-1. In the treatment of short bowel syndrome, GLP-2 and the long-acting GLP-2 analogue teduglutide (Gattex) are effective in improving fluid absorption. A recent multicentre, placebo-controlled study demonstrates that this can translate into meaningful reductions in parenteral nutrition requirements. Treatment dose and timing of treatment initiation might influence the mucosal growth response. Most of the small intestine has to be preserved to facilitate the previously documented benefits of GLP-2 on bone metabolism. Therapeutic uses of GLP-2 in other gastrointestinal conditions are being explored. GLP-2 treatment appears well tolerated, although concerns about the long-term use of this growth-promoting agent remain. GLP-2 therapy holds promise as an adjuvant treatment modality for short bowel syndrome and other gastrointestinal disorders.06/2009; 12(5):526-32. DOI:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32832d23cd
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ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-dependent intestinotropic hormone that promotes intestinal growth, via increased intestinal proliferation and decreased apoptosis, as well as increases in nutrient absorption and barrier function. The long-acting analog h(Gly2)GLP-2[1-33] is currently being tested for treatment of short bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease. However, the role of GLP-2 in colon carcinogenesis is controversial. To assess the intestinotropic effects of exogenous and endogenous GLP-2, C57BL6/J mice were injected with 1μg h(Gly2)GLP-2[1-33]; 30 or 60 ng hGLP-2[3-33], a GLP-2 receptor antagonist; or PBS (4 wk, twice a day, sc). Chronic h(Gly 2)GLP-2[1-33] increased small intestinal weight/body weight (P < 0.001), villus height (P < 0.001), crypt depth (P < 0.001), and crypt cell proliferation, as measured by expression of the proliferative marker Ki67 (P < 0.05-0.01). In contrast, chronic hGLP-2[3-33] decreased small intestinal weight/body weight (P < 0.05) and colon weight/body weight (P < 0.05). To assess the carcinogenic effects of endogenous and exogenous GLP-2, separate mice were injected with azoxymethane (10 mg/kg, 4 wk, every 7 d, ip), followed by 1.5 μg h(Gly2)GLP-2[1-33], 30 ng hGLP-2[3-33], or PBS (4 wk, twice a day, sc) 2 or 12 wk thereafter. At 10 or 46 wk after azoxymethane treatment, the numbers of aberrant crypt foci increased with h(Gly2)GLP-2[1-33] (P < 0.001) and decreased with hGLP-2[3-33] (P < 0.01-0.05) treatment. Furthermore, mucin-depleted aberrant foci, consistent with progressive dysplasia, were almost exclusively present in h(Gly2)GLP-2[1-33]- treated mice (P < 0.01-0.001). Additionally, adenocarcinomas developed in h(Gly2)GLP-2[1-33]-treated mice but not in those receiving hGLP-2[3-33] or PBS. Taken together, these studies indicate that chronic treatment with GLP-2 enhances colon carcinogenesis, whereas antagonism of the GLP-2 receptor decreases dysplasia, with possible implications for human therapy.Endocrinology 07/2009; 150(9):4033-43. DOI:10.1210/en.2009-0295 · 4.50 Impact Factor