Nottingham University Hospital and University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK.
BMJ (online) (Impact Factor: 16.38). 06/2013; 346:f3518. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.f3518
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The objectives of this review are to examine the comparative effectiveness and safety of different glaucoma fixed combination therapies and monotherapies in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and to provide relative rankings of these treatments.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 11/2014; DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD011366 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The correct self-administration of topical antiglaucomatous eye drops is important for the success of glaucoma treatment. Individual impairment, like increased age, decreased visual acuity, impaired visual-field perception or the frequency of drug appliance may influence a correct application technique and the patients compliance and therewith intraocular pressure (IOP). The aim of this study was to explore alterations of IOP due to self versus external administration (by trained medical personnel) of topical antiglaucomatous eye drops due to impairing factors. Material and Methods: A prospective analysis was undertaken of 123 patients with primary chronic open-angle glaucoma receiving a diurnal intraocular pressure (DIP) measurement over 72 hours at our department. During the first 24 hours, the application of topical eye drops was self-administered by patients (SA), while the application of eye drops within the following 48 hours was performed by trained medical personnel (EA). Alterations of mean intraocular pressure (MIP) and diurnal fluctuations (DF) between EA and SA were analysed with regard to initial IOP, restrictions of visual field perception, visual acuity, age, general health status and frequency of daily eye drop administration. Results: Overall comparable MIP in SA and EA was seen. 19.2-43.9 % of the patients with an initial IOP ≥ 11 mmHg showed beneficial effects of EA with lowering of IOP under 15.5 mmHg. 27.6 % of the patients showed lowering of DF < 5 mmHg due to EA. EA influenced DF beneficially in cases of poor visual acuity (≤ 0.1, - 0.8 mmHg) and frequent drop administration (- 0.75 mmHg). Conclusions: Subpopulations of investigated patients showed lowering of MIP due to EA, although EA showed no MIP lowering effects in comparison with SA in general. Glaucoma-impaired patients show decreased DF by EA. Particularly beneficial influences to DF by EA were observed due to impaired visual acuity and frequent drop administration. We recommend a 72-hour DIP to evaluate individual parameters influencing the success of topical glaucomatous treatment. The benefit of EA in patients with certain impairments should be the subject of further investigations.
    Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 08/2014; 231(8):810-817. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1368639 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objective Tetrandrine (TET) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Stephania tetrandra Moore. Recent studies have suggested that TET can reduce the inflammatory response in microglia, but the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether TET can inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation and clarify its possible mechanisms. Study Design/Materials and Methods Cell viability assays and cell apoptosis assays were used to determine the working concentrations of TET. Then, BV2 cells were seeded and pretreated with TET for 2 h. LPS was then added and incubated for an additional 24 hours. qRT-PCR and ELISA were used to measure the mRNA or protein levels of IL1β and TNFα. Western blotting was utilized to quantify the expression of CD11b and cell signaling proteins. Results TET at optimal concentrations (0.1 µM, 0.5 µM or 1 µM) did not affect the cell viability. After TET pretreatment, the levels of IL1β and TNFα (both in transcription and translation) were significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies indicated that phospho-p65, phospho-IKK, and phospho-ERK 1/2 expression were also suppressed by TET. Conclusions Our results indicate that TET can effectively suppress microglial activation and inhibit the production of IL1β and TNFα by regulating the NF-kB and ERK signaling pathways. Together with our previous studies, we suggest that TET would be a promising candidate to effectively suppress overactivated microglia and alleviate neurodegeneration in glaucoma.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e102522. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102522 · 3.53 Impact Factor