Article

Enhanced Orexin Receptor-2 Signaling Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity and Improves Leptin Sensitivity

Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.
Cell metabolism (Impact Factor: 16.75). 02/2009; 9(1):64-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2008.10.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The hypothalamic orexin neuropeptide acutely promotes appetite, yet orexin deficiency in humans and mice is associated with obesity. Prolonged effects of increased orexin signaling upon energy homeostasis have not been fully characterized. Here, we examine the metabolic effects of orexin gain of function utilizing genetic and pharmacologic techniques in mice. Transgenic orexin overexpression confers resistance to high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin insensitivity by promoting energy expenditure and reducing consumption. Genetic studies indicate that orexin receptor-2 (OX2R), rather than OX1R signaling, predominantly mediates this phenotype. Likewise, prolonged central administration of an OX2R-selective peptide agonist inhibits diet-induced obesity. While orexin overexpression enhances the anorectic-catabolic effects of central leptin administration, obese leptin-deficient mice are completely resistant to the metabolic effects of orexin overexpression or OX2R agonist infusion. We conclude that enhanced orexin-OX2R signaling confers resistance to diet-induced features of the metabolic syndrome through negative energy homeostasis and improved leptin sensitivity.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Hiromasa Funato, Jun 29, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
178 Views
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.
    International Journal of Biometeorology 07/2014; 59(4). DOI:10.1007/s00484-014-0871-z · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The anorexigenic hormone leptin plays an important role in the control of food intake and feeding-related behavior, for an important part through its action in the hypothalamus. The adipose-derived hormone modulates a complex network of several intercommunicating orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides in the hypothalamus to reduce food intake and increase energy expenditure. In this review we present an updated overview of the functional role of leptin in respect to feeding and feeding-related behavior per distinct hypothalamic nuclei. In addition to the arcuate nucleus, which is a major leptin sensitive hub, leptin-responsive neurons in other hypothalamic nuclei, including the, dorsomedial-, ventromedial- and paraventricular nucleus and the lateral hypothalamic area, are direct targets of leptin. However, leptin also modulates hypothalamic neurons in an indirect manner, such as via the melanocortin system. The dissection of the complexity of leptin's action on the networks involved in energy balance is subject of recent and future studies. A full understanding of the role of hypothalamic leptin in the regulation of energy balance requires cell-specific manipulation using of conditional deletion and expression of leptin receptors. In addition, optogenetic and pharmacogenetic tools in combination with other pharmacological (such as the recent discovery of a leptin receptor antagonist) and neuronal tracing techniques to map the circuit, will be helpful to understand the role of leptin receptor expressing neurons. Better understanding of these circuits and the involvement of leptin could provide potential sites for therapeutic interventions in obesity and metabolic diseases characterized by dysregulation of energy balance.
    Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 07/2014; 61-62. DOI:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2014.05.004 · 2.52 Impact Factor