Dentinal Tubules Sealing by Means of Diode Lasers (810 and 980 nm): A Preliminary In Vitro Study.

1 Department of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Liège , Quai Godfroid Kurth, Liège, Belgium .
Photomedicine and laser surgery (Impact Factor: 1.76). 06/2013; DOI: 10.1089/pho.2012.3443
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on dentinal surfaces of diode lasers (810 and 980 nm) at different parameters. Materials and methods: Twenty-four caries-free human impacted wisdom teeth were used. The crowns were sectioned transversely in order to expose the dentin. The smear layer was removed by a 1 min application of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Each surface was divided into four quadrants irradiated at a different output power setting for each kind of laser: 0.8, 1, 1.6, and 2 W (energy densities: 2547, 3184, 5092, and 6366 J/cm(2), irradiation speed 1 mm/sec; optical fiber diameter: 200 μm; continuous and noncontact mode). Half of the samples were stained with a graphite paste. All specimens were sent for scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. Pulp temperature increases in additional 20 teeth were measured by a thermocouple. Results: Diode laser irradiations at 0.8 and 1 W led to occlusion or narrowing of dentin tubules without provoking fissures or cracks. The application of graphite paste increased the thermal effects in dentin. Measurements of pulp temperature showed that irradiations at 0.8 and 1 W for a period of 10 sec in continuous mode increased pulp temperature (T ≤2°C). Conclusions: Diode lasers (810 and 980 nm) used at 0.8 and 1 W for 10 sec in continuous mode were able to seal the dentin tubules. These parameters can be considered harmless for pulp vitality, and may be effective in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity.

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the clinical use of the gallium-aluminum-arsenium (GaAlAs) laser at the maximum and minimum energies recommended by the manufacturer for the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity. Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a response to a stimulus that would not usually cause pain in a healthy tooth. It is characterized by sharp pain of short duration from the denuded dentin. Its etiology is unknown. The dentin only begins to show sensitivity when exposed to the buccal environment. This exposure can result after removal of the enamel and/or dental cement, or after root denudation. Different treatments are proposed for this disorder. In this study, 25 patients, with a total number of 106 cases of DH, were treated with GaAlAs low-level laser therapy (LLLT). 65% of the teeth were premolars; 14% were incisors and molars; 6.6% were canines. The teeth were irradiated with 3 and 5 J/cm2 for up to six sessions, with an interval of 72 h between each application, and they were evaluated initially, after each application, and at 15 and 60 days follow-up post-treatment. The treatment was effective in 86.53% and 88.88% of the irradiated teeth, respectively, with the minimum and maximum energy recommended by the manufacturer. There was a statistically significant difference between DH and after a follow-up of 60 days for both groups. The difference among the energy maximum and minimum was not significant. The GaAlAs low-level laser was effective in reducing initial DH. A significant difference was found between initial values of hypersensitivity and after 60 days follow-up post-treatment. No significant difference was found between minimum (3 J/cm2) and maximum (5 J/cm2) applied energy.
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    ABSTRACT: Dentine hypersensitivity can be a frustrating condition to treat. The most common form of treatment is use of a desensitizing dentifrice, but for many patients this may provide only partial pain relief and recurrence is common. Recent research has provided several important findings which may serve as a basis for refining the approach to dentine hypersensitivity management, and for improving the success of treatment. This paper reviews the research and outlines a management system which transfers readily to clinical practice.
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to investigate the structural changes of dentinal tubules in specimens obtained from both hypersensitive and naturally desensitized areas in wedge-shaped defects on the same exposed cervical dentin surface of a hypersensitive tooth. A new biopsy technique that makes use of a hollow, cylindrical diamond bur was designed so that specimens from exposed root dentin of vital teeth could be obtained. Twenty-two dentin biopsy pairs were divided into two groups; one was prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the other for microradiography (MR). Small hypersensitive areas were identified by a scratch test on exposed human dentin in vivo. SEM observation of the dentin biopsies showed that the orifices of many dentinal tubules in hypersensitive areas were open and that membranous structures appeared on the walls of dentinal tubules. In naturally desensitized areas on the same dentin surface, most of the dentinal tubules were obturated with rhombohedral crystals of all sizes; membranous structures were not observed in these tubules. These results showed that hypersensitivity occurred on the exposed dentin when most of the tubular orifices were open.
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