Diet-induced alterations in intestinal and extrahepatic lipid metabolism in liver fatty acid binding protein knockout mice.
ABSTRACT Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is highly expressed in both enterocytes and hepatocytes and binds multiple ligands, including saturated (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and cholesterol. L-fabp (-/-) mice were protected against obesity and hepatic steatosis on a high saturated fat (SF), high cholesterol "Western" diet and manifested a similar phenotype when fed with a high SF, low cholesterol diet. There were no significant differences in fecal fat content or food consumption between the genotypes, and fatty acid (FA) oxidation was reduced, rather than increased, in SF-fed L-fabp (-/-) mice as evidenced by decreased heat production and serum ketones. In contrast to mice fed with a SF diet, L-fabp (-/-) mice fed with a high PUFA diet were not protected against obesity and hepatic steatosis. These observations together suggest that L-fabp (-/-) mice exhibit a specific defect in the metabolism of SFA, possibly reflecting altered kinetics of FA utilization. In support of this possibility, microarray analysis of muscle from Western diet-fed mice revealed alterations in genes regulating glucose uptake and FA synthesis. In addition, intestinal cholesterol absorption was decreased in L-fabp (-/-) mice. On the other hand, and in striking contrast to other reports, female L-fabp (-/-) mice fed with low fat, high cholesterol diets gained slightly less weight than control mice, with minor reductions in hepatic triglyceride content. Together these data indicate a role for L-FABP in intestinal trafficking of both SFA and cholesterol.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic pain represents a mixture of pathophysiologic mechanisms, a complex assortment of spontaneous and elicited pain states, and a somewhat unpredictable response to analgesics. Opioids remain the mainstay of treatment of moderate to severe chronic pain, although there is little systematic examination to guide drug selection. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors play primarily an adjunctive role in chronic pain treatment. Agents with little activity in the treatment of acute pain, such as antidepressants, antiepileptics, and i.v. administered local anesthetics, are initiated in many patients and have significant long-term efficacy in some patients with chronic pain. The N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist ketamine and the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist clonidine exhibit activity in patients with acute or chronic pain and reduce opioid consumption, but are often poorly tolerated due to side effects. Topical treatment with capsaicin or lidocaine exhibits efficacy in a subset of patients, and invasive intrathecal treatment with opioids as well as clonidine, neostigmine, and adenosine may have advantages in some patients. Several laboratory models have been developed to mimic chronic pain states found in humans. Nerve injury has been induced in rats by a variety of means, resulting in mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. A number of arthritic states have also been produced by means of chronic joint inflammation in rats. The pharmacology of these neuropathic and arthritic pain models generally resembles that found in the respective human conditions. Additional models of chronic pain, particularly visceral pain, have been developed; however, the pharmacology of these models is not well established at this time.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 01/2002; 299(3):811-7. · 3.83 Impact Factor
Article: Differential inhibition and inactivation of human CYP1 enzymes by trans-resveratrol: evidence for mechanism-based inactivation of CYP1A2.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: trans-Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) has been reported to confer chemoprotection against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenicity in a murine model. A potential mechanism for this effect by trans-resveratrol is inhibition of DMBA-bioactivating cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes such as CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2. In the present study, we examined in detail the in vitro inhibitory effects of trans-resveratrol on these three human CYP enzymes. trans-Resveratrol decreased 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylation activity catalyzed by human recombinant CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2 in a concentration-dependent manner and by a mixed type of inhibition. This direct inhibition was enzyme-selective, as judged by the differences in the apparent K(i) values (0.8 +/- 0.1 microM, 1.2 +/- 0.1 microM, and 15.5 +/- 1.1 microM for CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2, respectively). Preincubating recombinant CYP1A2 or human liver microsomes with trans-resveratrol and NADPH prior to the initiation of substrate oxidation resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in catalytic activity. The inactivation of liver microsomal CYP1A2 by trans-resveratrol required NADPH, was not reversible by dialysis, and was not affected by the trapping agents glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, catalase, or superoxide dismutase, but was attenuated by a CYP1A2 substrate, imipramine. Analysis of a panel of individual human liver microsomes showed intersample differences in the response to the in vitro inactivation by trans-resveratrol. In contrast to CYP1A2, CYP1B1 was not subject to inactivation by this compound and the reduction in CYP1A1 activity was time- but not concentration-dependent. In summary, trans-resveratrol differentially inhibited human CYP1 enzymes and this occurred by two distinct mechanisms: direct inhibition (mainly CYP1B1 and CYP1A1) and mechanism-based inactivation (CYP1A2).Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 01/2002; 299(3):874-82. · 3.83 Impact Factor