The unsaturated polyphosphoester (UPPE) polymer is being investigated as an injectable and biodegradable system for alveolar bone repair in the treatment of periodontal diseases. The incorporation of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) particles into the UPPE polymer was previously shown to significantly increase the material's mechanical properties. Moreover, in vitro experiments demonstrated that the UPPE/beta-TCP composite was capable of zero-order release of tetracycline for over 2 weeks. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of each individual component, the resulting cross-linked network and the degradation products of the UPPE/beta-TCP composite using an AlamarBlue viability assay. We confirmed that each individual component except beta-TCP and the in vitro degradation products of the composite displayed a dose-dependent cytotoxic response. Once cross-linked, however, the composite did not demonstrate an adverse response. Our results suggest that the UPPE/beta-TCP composite holds great promise for use as an injectable and biodegradable alveolar bone substitute.
"While these conditions do not exactly replicate the actual changes in the polymer in vivo and may not correlate with actual in vivo degradation time, they do simulate the physical changes expected during natural degradation on a shortened timescale . Four different dilution factors were chosen in this study to represent a range of concentrations of the degradation product (Zhang et al. 2009 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The need for bone graft alternatives has led to the development of numerous bone graft substitutes. Here, the authors have synthesized a biodegradable poly(caprolactone-trifumarate) (PCLTF) polymer solution that could be injected into any bony defect. This polymer solution was synthesized using polycaprolactone-triol and fumaryl chloride (FCl). PCLTF is a multiple-branching, unsaturated and cross-linkable in situ material. The surface microstructure of PCLTF was investigated using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The incorporation of double bonds originating from FCl into the poly(caprolactone) backbone was confirmed in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. The in vitro cytotoxic effects of PCLTF, its leachable extracts and degradation products were evaluated in direct and indirect contact tests against human oral fibroblasts. Cell viability was evaluated using the microculture tetrazolium assay and cytotoxicity evaluations of PCLTF were tested in accordance with ISO 10993-5 standards. The results showed that there was evidence of reasonable cell growth, good cell viability and intact cell morphology after exposure to PCLTF, its extracts and degradation products. There was no evidence of critical cytotoxic effects.
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Frontiers in Life Science 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/21553769.2015.1051240 · 0.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyphosphoesters (PPEs) with repeating phosphoester bonds in the backbone are structurally versatile, biocompatible, and biodegradable through hydrolysis as well as enzymatic digestion under physiological conditions. They are appealing for biological applications because of their potential functionality, biocompatibility, and similarity to biomacromolecules such as nucleic acids. The expanding scope of PPEs in materials science, especially as biomaterials, is described in this review. We mainly focus on controlled synthetic methods of PPEs, which provide access to novel and complex polymer structures, especially for block copolymers. The hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation of PPEs, thermoresponsive PPEs, and biomedical applications have also been discussed.
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