Galactography acquired with digital mammography in patients with nipple discharge: A retrospective analysis
Department of Radiology, Kang-Nam St Mary's Hospital, Catholic University of Medical College, Seoul, South Korea. Archives of Gynecology
(Impact Factor: 1.36).
08/2009; 280(2):217-22. DOI: 10.1007/s00404-008-0897-8
To evaluate the galactographic findings taken with digital mammography and to compare the findings between benign and malignant breast diseases.
Galactographic findings were retrospectively analyzed and compared with histopathological results for 42 patients who showed abnormal findings on galactography and had histologically proven diagnoses between January 2005 and March 2008. A galactography was acquired using full-field digital mammography (Hologic Lorad Selenia; Danbury, USA). The difference in galactographic findings between malignant and benign breast diseases was analyzed using chi(2) test. A value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Of the total 42 cases, 11 cases were malignant breast diseases and 31 were benign diseases. Common galactographic findings of benign diseases include ductal obstruction (48.3%) and single filling defect (51.6%), and common findings for malignant tumor include ductal dilatation (72.7%) and stenosis (63.6%). Ductal stenosis, microcalcifications or mass adjacent to abnormal duct, multiple filling defects, ductal wall irregularity, ductal distortion and irregular filling defects were more prevalently seen in malignant cases. A single filling defect and lobular filling defect was more prevalently seen in benign cases (P < 0.05). Ductal dilatation was a common finding in both malignant and benign cases with no significant difference.
Ductal lesions were well visualized on galactography acquired with a digital mammography. A preoperative diagnostic galactography is useful in making a differential diagnosis between benign diseases and malignant tumors in patients with pathologic nipple discharge.
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ABSTRACT: We conducted a cluster randomized clinical trial to compare the benefit of offering on-site mobile mammography in addition to an outreach program designed to increase mammography use by educating patients.
We recruited a consecutive volunteer sample of 499 women ranging in age from 60 to 84 years who had not undergone mammography in the previous year to participate in a cluster randomized clinical trial about the benefit of on-site mobile mammography. Subjects were recruited from 60 community-based sites where seniors gather. The intervention included a structured on-site multicomponent educational program with or without available on-site mobile mammography. The primary outcome measure was self-reported receipt of mammography within 3 months of the intervention.
Women in the group offered access to on-site mammography and health education were significantly more likely than those in the group offered health education only to undergo mammography within 3 months (55% vs 40%, p = 0.001; adjusted [for clustering] odds ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2.74). Gains from offering on-site mammography were shown for several ethnic and sociodemographic subgroups and were especially large for Asian American women.
Offering on-site mammography at community-based sites where older women gather is an effective method for increasing breast cancer screening rates among older women and may be particularly effective for some subgroups of women who traditionally have had low screening rates.
American Journal of Roentgenology 01/2003; 179(6):1509-14. DOI:10.2214/ajr.179.6.1791509 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Galactography is the technique of choice for investigating pathological nipple discharge. However, there is no standardized interpretation system for this procedure.
To evaluate radiological and histological correlation using a Galactogram Imaging Classification System (GICS). Material and Methods: We retrospectively studied all galactograms obtained in 62 women with pathological nipple discharge who subsequently had biopsy at our institution between 1999 and 2007. The GICS proposes five categories for galactographic findings: GICS 1: negative; GICS 2: benign; GICS 3: probably benign; GICS 4: suspect for malignancy; GICS 5: highly suspect for malignancy.
The galactographic findings were classified as follows: GICS 2: 25.8% (16/62); GICS 3: 30.6% (19/62); GICS 4: 25.8% (16/62); and GICS 5: 17.7% (11/62). A good correlation was observed between histological diagnosis and GICS categories (P < 0.05). All the cases diagnosed with carcinoma (n = 11) were classified in GICS category 5.
The present study shows a good correlation between GICS categories and histological diagnosis.
Acta Radiologica 12/2009; 51(2):128-36. DOI:10.3109/02841850903436659 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new system for the classification of galactograms is reported. To date, there is no universally accepted classification system.
To evaluate inter- and intra-observer agreement of the Galactogram Imaging Classification System (GICS) MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six observers with different levels of experience retrospectively evaluated 30 galactograms using the GICS. Images were reviewed independently twice within a four-week period. The kappa statistic was calculated for intra- and inter-observer variability.
The kappa for inter-observer agreement was moderate to substantial (range 0.41-0.72). Overall, the intra-observer kappa values were excellent (range 0.80-0.94).
The present study shows a good to very good inter- and intra-observer agreement with the GICS. We believe the GICS can be incorporated into daily practice.
Acta Radiologica 07/2011; 52(8):829-33. DOI:10.1258/ar.2011.110118 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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