The H3K4 demethylase lid associates with and inhibits histone deacetylase Rpd3.
ABSTRACT JmjC domain-containing proteins have been shown to possess histone demethylase activity. One of these proteins is the Drosophila histone H3 lysine 4 demethylase Little imaginal discs (Lid), which has been genetically classified as a Trithorax group protein. However, contrary to the supposed function of Lid in gene activation, the biochemical activity of this protein entails the removal of a histone mark that is correlated with active transcription. To understand the molecular mechanism behind the function of Lid, we have purified a Lid-containing protein complex from Drosophila embryo nuclear extracts. In addition to Lid, the complex contains Rpd3, CG3815/Drosophila Pf1, CG13367, and Mrg15. Rpd3 is a histone deacetylase, and along with Polycomb group proteins, which antagonize the function of Trithorax group proteins, it negatively regulates transcription. By reconstituting the Lid complex, we demonstrated that the demethylase activity of Lid is not affected by its association with other proteins. However, the deacetylase activity of Rpd3 is greatly diminished upon incorporation into the Lid complex. Thus, our finding that Lid antagonizes Rpd3 function provides an explanation for the genetic classification of Lid as a positive transcription regulator.
SourceAvailable from: Xingyin Liu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Increased cellular levels of oxidative stress are implicated in a large number of human diseases. Here we describe the transcription co-factor KDM5 (also known as Lid) as a new critical regulator of cellular redox state. Moreover, this occurs through a novel KDM5 activity whereby it alters the ability of the transcription factor Foxo to bind to DNA. Our microarray analyses of kdm5 mutants revealed a striking enrichment for genes required to regulate cellular levels of oxidative stress. Consistent with this, loss of kdm5 results in increased sensitivity to treatment with oxidizers, elevated levels of oxidized proteins, and increased mutation load. KDM5 activates oxidative stress resistance genes by interacting with Foxo to facilitate its recruitment to KDM5-Foxo co-regulated genes. Significantly, this occurs independently of KDM5's well-characterized demethylase activity. Instead, KDM5 interacts with the lysine deacetylase HDAC4 to promote Foxo deacetylation, which affects Foxo DNA binding.PLoS Genetics 10/2014; 10(10):e1004676. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004676 · 8.17 Impact Factor
Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2012; 17(1):909. DOI:10.2741/3964 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ecdysone signaling pathway plays a major role in various developmental transitions in insects. Recent advances in the understanding of ecdysone action have relied to a large extent on the application of molecular genetic tools in Drosophila. Here, we used a comprehensive quantitative SILAC mass spectrometry-based approach to study the global, dynamic proteome of a Drosophila cell line to investigate how hormonal signals are transduced into specific cellular responses. Global proteome data after ecdysone treatment after various time points were then integrated with transcriptome data. We observed a substantial overlap in terms of affected targets between the dynamic proteome and transcriptome, although there were some clear differences in timing effects. Also, downregulation of several specific mRNAs did not always correlate with downregulation of their corresponding protein counterparts and in some cases there was no correlation between transcriptome and proteome dynamics whatsoever. In addition, we performed a comprehensive interactome analysis of EcR, the major target of ecdysone. Proteins co-purified with EcR include factors involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling, ecdysone signaling, ecdysone biosynthesis and other signaling pathways. Novel ecdysone-responsive proteins identified in this study might link previously unknown proteins to the ecdysone signaling pathway and might be novel targets for developmental studies. To our knowledge, this is the first time that ecdysone signaling is studied by global quantitative proteomics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.PROTEOMICS 02/2015; 15(4). DOI:10.1002/pmic.201400308 · 3.97 Impact Factor