Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of clinical Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium periodonticum isolates from the human gut.
ABSTRACT Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative anaerobic rod that is part of the normal human microflora, and has also been associated with various infections. Bacterial strains belonging to the species are typically heterogeneous in both phenotype and genotype, which can hinder their identification in a clinical setting. The majority of F. nucleatum isolates originate from oral sites, however the species is also a resident of the human gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to compare F. nucleatum isolates from human intestinal biopsy samples to try and determine whether isolates from this site are divergent from oral isolates. We used a variety of phenotypic and genotypic markers to compare 21 F. nucleatum and Fusobacterium periodonticum isolates from the GI tract to oral isolates and recognized type strains in order to study heterogeneity within this set. 16S rDNA and rpoB gene sequence analysis allowed us to build phylogenetic trees that consistently placed isolates into distinct clusters. 16S rDNA copy number analyses using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated potential for use as a method to examine clonality amongst species. Phenotypic analyses gave variable results that were generally unhelpful in distinguishing between phylogenetic clusters. Our results suggest that a) F. periodonticum isolates are not restricted to the oral niche; b) phenotypic classification is not sufficient to subspeciate isolates; c) heterogeneity within the species is extensive but constrained; and d) F. nucleatum isolates from the gut tend to identify with the animalis subspecies.
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ABSTRACT: In vitro gut models provide several advantages over in vivo models for the study of the human gut microbiota. However, because communities developed in these models are inevitably simplified simulations of the in vivo environment, it is necessary to broadly define the differences between in vitro consortia and the communities from which they are derived. In this study we characterized microbial community development in a twin-vessel single-stage chemostat model of the human distal gut ecosystem using both gel (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) and phylogenetic microarray (Human Intestinal Tract Chip) based techniques. Five different sets of twin-vessels were inoculated with feces from three different healthy adult donors and allowed to reach steady state compositions. We found that twin-vessel single-stage chemostats could develop and maintain stable, diverse, and reproducible communities that reach steady state compositions in all five runs by at most 36days post-inoculation. As noted in other in vitro studies, steady state communities were enriched in Bacteroidetes but not Clostridium cluster XIVa, Bacilli or other Firmicutes relative to the fecal inocula. Communities developed within this model had higher within-run reproducibility than between-run repeatability when using consecutive fecal donations. Both fecal inocula and steady state chemostat communities seeded with feces from different donors had distinct compositions. We conclude that twin-vessel single-stage chemostat models represent a valid simulation of the human distal gut environment and can support complex, representative microbial communities ideal for experimental manipulation.Journal of microbiological methods 08/2013; · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent reports have suggested that multiple factors such as host genetics, environment and diet can promote the progression of healthy mucosa towards sporadic colorectal carcinoma. Accumulating evidence has additionally associated intestinal bacteria with disease initiation and progression. In order to examine and analyze the composition of gut microbiota in the absence of confounding influences, we have established an animal model of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer. Using this model, we have performed pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes in this study to determine the diversity and breadth of the intestinal microbial species. Our findings indicate that the microbial composition of the intestinal lumen differs significantly between control and tumor groups. The abundance of Firmicutes was elevated whereas the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Spirochetes was reduced in the lumen of CRC rats. Fusobacteria was not detected in any of the healthy rats and there was no significant difference in observed Proteobacteria species when comparing the bacterial communities between our two groups. Interestingly, the abundance of Proteobacteria was higher in CRC rats. At the genus level, Bacteroides exhibited a relatively higher abundance in CRC rats compared to controls (14.92% vs. 9.22%, p<0.001). Meanwhile, Prevotella (55.22% vs. 26.19%), Lactobacillus (3.71% vs. 2.32%) and Treponema (3.04% vs. 2.43%), were found to be significantly more abundant in healthy rats than CRC rats (p<0.001, respectively). We also demonstrate a significant reduction of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Roseburia and Eubacterium in the gut microbiota of CRC rats. Furthermore, a significant increase in Desulfovibrio, Erysipelotrichaceae and Fusobacterium was also observed in the tumor group. A decrease in probiotic species such as Ruminococcus and Lactobacillus was likewise observed in the tumor group. Collectively, we can conclude that a significant difference in intestinal bacterial flora exists between healthy rats and CRC rats.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90849. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The human gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a player in colorectal cancer (CRC). While particular imbalances in the gut microbiota have been linked to colorectal adenomas and cancer, no specific bacterium has been identified as a risk factor. Recent studies have reported a high abundance of Fusobacterium in CRC subjects compared to normal subjects, but this observation has not been reported for adenomas, CRC precursors. We assessed the abundance of Fusobacterium species in the normal rectal mucosa of subjects with (n = 48) and without adenomas (n = 67). We also confirmed previous reports on Fusobacterium and CRC in 10 CRC tumor tissues and 9 matching normal tissues by pyrosequencing. We extracted DNA from rectal mucosal biopsies and measured bacterial levels by quantitative PCR of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Local cytokine gene expression was also determined in mucosal biopsies from adenoma cases and controls by quantitative PCR. The mean log abundance of Fusobacterium or cytokine gene expression between cases and controls was compared by t-test. Logistic regression was used to compare tertiles of Fusobacterium abundance. Adenoma subjects had a significantly higher abundance of Fusobacterium species compared to controls (p = 0.01). Compared to the lowest tertile, subjects with high abundance of Fusobacterium were significantly more likely to have adenomas (OR 3.66, 95% CI 1.37-9.74, p-trend 0.005). Cases but not controls had a significant positive correlation between local cytokine gene expression and Fusobacterium abundance. Among cases, the correlation for local TNF-α and Fusobacterium was r = 0.33, p = 0.06 while it was 0.44, p = 0.01 for Fusobacterium and IL-10. These results support a link between the abundance of Fusobacterium in colonic mucosa and adenomas and suggest a possible role for mucosal inflammation in this process.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53653. · 3.73 Impact Factor