Persistence of Mumps Antibodies after 2 Doses of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine
ABSTRACT Since 1990, most US schoolchildren have received a second dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR2) at kindergarten entry. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the short- and long-term mumps immunogenicity of MMR2.
At enrollment in 1994-1995, children (n=308) in a rural Wisconsin health maintenance organization received MMR2 at age 4-6 years. A comparison group of older children (n=308) was vaccinated at age 9-11 years. Serum samples were collected over 12 years. Mumps antibody levels were evaluated by plaque-reduction neutralization (lowest detectable titer, 10).
Before MMR2, the geometric mean titer (GMT) for the younger group was 33; no subject was seronegative, but 16% had the lowest detectable titer. In response to MMR2, the GMT tripled to 97, and the proportion with low titers diminished to 3%. Four-fold boosts occurred among 54%, but only 3% were positive for immunoglobulin M. Twelve years after MMR2, the GMT declined to 46, the proportion with titers<or=10 was not significantly different from the pre-MMR2 proportion, and 5% were seronegative. The older group showed similar patterns, and at age 17 years both groups had comparable antibody levels.
The mumps antibody response to MMR2 was vigorous, but over a 12-year period titers declined to levels similar to pre-MMR2 titers. No advantage was apparent in delaying MMR2 from kindergarten to middle school.
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ABSTRACT: Mumps outbreaks in populations with high 2-dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine coverage raise the question whether a third dose of MMR vaccine (MMR3) is needed. However, data on the immunogenicity of MMR3 are limited. We assessed mumps virus neutralizing antibody levels pre- and post-MMR3 in a nonoutbreak setting. Mumps antibody titers were assessed at baseline, 1 month, and 1 year after MMR3 in subjects aged 18-28 years. At baseline, 5 of 656 (0.8%) subjects had seronegative mumps neutralizing antibody titers and 38 (5.8%) had low titers. One year post-MMR3, these numbers declined to 3 (0.5%) and 16 (2.4%), respectively. Subjects with low baseline titers were more likely to have low 1-month and 1-year titers (R (2) = 0.81-0.87, P < .0001). Compared to baseline, geometric mean titers were significantly higher at 1 month (P < .0001) and 1 year (P < .01) post-MMR3; however, reverse cumulative distribution curves showed only minimal shifts in mumps titers from baseline to 1 month and 1 year. Very few subjects had negative or low baseline mumps titers. Nonetheless, mumps titers had modest but significant increases when measured 1 month and 1 year post-MMR3. This temporary increase in titers could decrease susceptibility to disease during outbreaks, but may have limited value for routine use in vaccinated populations.IDWeek 2014 Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 10/2014
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ABSTRACT: Two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) strategy has been recommended by World Health Organization and is also widely adopted in many countries. In order to provide the evidence for perfecting the immunization strategy of MMR, this study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of MMR with different two-dose schedule in infants. 280 participants were enrolled and randomly allocated to Group 1 (first dose at 8 months) or Group 2 (first dose at 12 months), and both groups administered the second dose at 10 months later. Solicited local and general symptoms after each vaccination with MMR were mild and infrequent in all participants of two groups. After administration of the first dose of MMR, seropositive rates were 100% in both groups for measles, 89.3% in Group 1 and 87.1% in Group 2 for mumps (P=0.578), 92.0% in Group 1 and 92.9% in Group 2 (P=0.393). The seropositive rates of mumps decreased significantly (from >86% to <65%) both in two groups (P<0.001) 10 months after the first dose of MMR, but no significant change was found in measles and rubella. All children get the positive titer for three vaccines in two groups after given the second dose MMR, higher seroconversion rate was found for mumps both in two groups (71.7% vs 77.2%, P=0.370). In conclusion, this study indicated that the MMR was well tolerated and immunogenic against measles, mumps and rubella with schedule of first dose both at 8 months and 12 months age. Our findings strongly supported that two doses of MMR can be introduced by replacing the first dose of MR in current EPI with MMR at 8 months age and the second dose at 18 months in China.Vaccine 05/2014; 32(31). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.044 · 3.49 Impact Factor
Article: Resurgence of Mumps in Korea[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Routine vaccination against mumps has markedly reduced its incidence. However, the incidence of mumps continuously has increased since 2007. In 2013, a large mumps epidemic occurred in Korea, and this epidemic is still an ongoing problem. This epidemic occurred primarily in school settings and affected vaccinated adolescents, predominantly male students. The recent resurgence of mumps is caused by multiple factors: suboptimal effectiveness of the current mumps vaccines, use of the Rubini strain vaccine, waning immunity in the absence of natural boosting due to the marked reduction in the mumps incidence, genotype mismatch between the vaccine and circulating mumps virus strains, and environmental conditions that foster intense exposures. Containment of mumps outbreaks is challenging because the sensitivity of diagnostic tests is low among vaccinees and control measures are less efficient because of the inherent nature of the mumps virus. Despite the suboptimal vaccine effectiveness in outbreak settings, maintaining the high vaccine coverage is an important strategy to prevent mumps outbreaks, given that the routine use of mumps vaccines has substantially reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications as compared with that in the pre-vaccine era. In order to control the current mumps epidemic and prevent further outbreaks, we need to better understand the dynamics of mumps among vaccinated populations and the changing epidemiology in Korea. Concerted efforts should be made to systematically monitor the immunization status of the Korean population and to improve diagnosis efficiency. Furthermore, more effective mumps vaccines need to be developed in the future.03/2015; 47(1):1-11. DOI:10.3947/ic.2015.47.1.1