Accurate simulation of optical properties in dyes.
ABSTRACT Since Antiquity, humans have produced and commercialized dyes. To this day, extraction of natural dyes often requires lengthy and costly procedures. In the 19th century, global markets and new industrial products drove a significant effort to synthesize artificial dyes, characterized by low production costs, huge quantities, and new optical properties (colors). Dyes that encompass classes of molecules absorbing in the UV-visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum now have a wider range of applications, including coloring (textiles, food, paintings), energy production (photovoltaic cells, OLEDs), or pharmaceuticals (diagnostics, drugs). Parallel to the growth in dye applications, researchers have increased their efforts to design and synthesize new dyes to customize absorption and emission properties. In particular, dyes containing one or more metallic centers allow for the construction of fairly sophisticated systems capable of selectively reacting to light of a given wavelength and behaving as molecular devices (photochemical molecular devices, PMDs).Theoretical tools able to predict and interpret the excited-state properties of organic and inorganic dyes allow for an efficient screening of photochemical centers. In this Account, we report recent developments defining a quantitative ab initio protocol (based on time-dependent density functional theory) for modeling dye spectral properties. In particular, we discuss the importance of several parameters, such as the methods used for electronic structure calculations, solvent effects, and statistical treatments. In addition, we illustrate the performance of such simulation tools through case studies. We also comment on current weak points of these methods and ways to improve them.
- SourceAvailable from: Cairong ZhangJournal of Nanomaterials. 01/2013; 2013:8.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations have been employed to investigate the molecular structures and absorption spectra of three D--A-type organic dyes (C1-1, D5 and TH208) containing identical -spacers and electron acceptors, but different aromatic amine electron-donating groups (tetrahydroquinoline, triphenylamine and phenothiazine). The coplanar geometries indicate that the strong conjugation is formed in the dyes. The electronic structures suggest that the intramolecular charge transfer from the donor to the acceptor occurs, and the electron-donating ability of tetrahydroquinoline is stronger than those of triphenylamine and phenothiazine. The computed orbital energy levels of these dyes confirm that the electrons could be injected from the excited dyes to the semiconductor conduction band and the oxidized dyes could be reduced effectively by electrolyte. The TD-DFT results show that the CAM-B3LYP/6-31+G(d, p) is suitable for calculating the absorption spectra. The first absorption band for these dyes is assigned to the HOMOLUMO and HOMO-1LUMO transitions.Bulletin- Korean Chemical Society 11/2013; 34(11). · 0.84 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Using time-dependent density functional theory and the polarizable continuum model, we have simulated the absorption spectra of an extended series of azobenzene dyes. First, we have determined a theoretical level optimal for this important class of dyes, and it turned out that a C-PCM-CAM-B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)//C-PCM-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) approach represents an effective compromise between chemical accuracy and computational cost. In a second stage, we have compared the theoretical and experimental transition energies for 46 n → π☆ and 141 π → π☆ excitations. For the full set, that spans over a 302–565 nm domain, we obtained a mean absolute deviation of 13 nm (0.10 eV) and a linear correlation coefficient of 0.95, illustrating the accuracy of our approach, though some significant outliers pertained. In a last step, the impact of several modifications, that is, trans/cis isomerization, variation of the acidity of the medium and azo/hydrazo tautomerism have been modeled with two functionals. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2010International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 12/2011; 111(15). · 1.17 Impact Factor