Utility of a bacterial infection model to study epithelial-mesenchymal transition, mesenchymal-epithelial transition or tumorigenesis

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.
Oncogene (Impact Factor: 8.46). 06/2013; 33(20). DOI: 10.1038/onc.2013.210
Source: PubMed


DCLK1 and Lgr5 have recently been identified as markers of quiescent and cycling stem cells in the small intestinal crypts, respectively. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key development program that is often activated during cancer invasion and metastasis, and also imparts a self-renewal capability to disseminating cancer cells. Utilizing the Citrobacter rodentium (CR)-induced transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) model, we observed a relative decrease in DCLK1 expression in the colonic crypts, with significant shift towards stromal staining at peak (12 days post infection) hyperplasia, whereas staining for Lgr5 and Msi-1 increased several fold. When hyperplasia was regressing (days 20-34), an expansion of DCLK1+ve cells in the CR-infected crypts compared with that seen in uninfected control was recorded. Purified colonic crypt cells exhibiting epigenetic modulation of the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), Wnt and Notch pathways on 12 or 34 days post infection formed monolayers in vitro, and underwent trans-differentiation into fibroblast-like cells that stained positive for vimentin, fibronectin and DCLK1. These cells when trypsinized and regrown in soft agar, formed colonospheres/organoids that developed into crypt-like structures (colonoids) in Matrigel and stained positive for DCLK1. Mice exhibiting 12 or 34 days of TMCH were given azoxymethane once for 8 h (Gp1) or weekly for 3 weeks (Gp2), and subjected to crypt isolation. Crypt cells from Gp1 animals formed monolayers as well as colonospheres in soft agar and nodules/tumors in nude mice. Crypt cells isolated from Gp2 animals failed to form the monolayers, but developed into colonospheres in soft agar and nodules/tumors in nude mice. Thus, both hyperplasia and increased presence of DCLK1+ve cells promote cellular transformation in response to a second hit. The TMCH model, therefore, provides an excellent template to study how alterations in intestinal stem cells promote trans-differentiation, crypt regeneration or colon carcinogenesis following bacterial infection.Oncogene advance online publication, 10 June 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.210.

33 Reads
  • Source
    • "Citrobacter rodentium causes a self-limiting condition of epithelial hyperproliferation without an appreciable inflammatory infiltrate and is sufficient to cause colon tumor development. C. rodentium-induced transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia model provides an excellent template to study how alterations in intestinal stem cells promote trans-differentiation and colon carcinogenesis following bacterial infection [15] [16]. Although C. rodentium is not a human pathogen, the bacterial genes (35 kbp pathogenicity island) required for infection and presumably for the induction of epithelial cell hyperplasia are genetically similar to enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli [14]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer mortality is one of the most common cause of cancer-related mortality. A multiple risk factors are associated with colorectal cancer, including hereditary, enviromental and inflammatory syndromes affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the emergence of hundreds to thousands of colorectal adenomatous polyps and FAP syndrome is caused by mutations within the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene. We analyzed 21 rectal bacterial subclones isolated from FAP patient 41-1 with confirmed 5bp ACAAA deletion within codons 1060-1063 for the presence of APC-like sequences in longest exon 15. The studied section was defined by primers 15Efor-15Erev, what correlates with mutation cluster region (MCR) in which the 75% of all APC germline mutations were detected. More than 90% homology was showed by sequencing and subsequent software comparison. The expression of APC-like sequences was demostrated by Western blot analysis using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against APC protein. To study missing link between the DNA analysis (PCR, DNA sequencing) and protein expresion experiments (Western blotting) we analyzed bacterial transcripts containing the 15Efor-15Erev sequence of APC gene by reverse transcription-PCR, what indicated that an APC gene derived fragment may be produced. We observed 97-100 % homology after computer comparison of cDNA PCR products. Our results suggest that presence of APC-like sequences in intestinal/rectal bacteria is enrichment of bacterial genetic information in which horizontal gene transfer between humans and microflora play an important role. Keywords: colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis, bacterial flora, APC-like sequences, APC-like protein.
    Neoplasma 05/2014; 61(3):283-90. DOI:10.4149/neo_2014_036 · 1.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Both β-catenin and NF-κB have been implicated in our laboratory as candidate factors in driving proliferation in an in vivo model of Citrobacter rodentium (CR)-induced colonic crypt hyper-proliferation and hyperplasia. Herein, we test the hypothesis that β-catenin and not necessarily NF-κB regulates colonic crypt hyperplasia or tumorigenesis in response to CR infection. When C57Bl/6 wild type (WT) mice were infected with CR, sequential increases in proliferation at days 9 and 12 plateaued off at day 19 and paralleled increases in NF-κB signaling. In Tlr4(-/-) (KO) mice, a sequential but sustained proliferation which tapered off only marginally at day 19, was associated with TLR4-dependent and independent increases in NF-κB signaling. Similarly, increases in either activated or total β-catenin in the colonic crypts of WT mice as early as day 3 post-infection coincided with cyclinD1 and c-myc expression and associated crypt hyperplasia. In KO mice, a delayed kinetics associated predominantly with increases in non-phosphorylated (active) β-catenin coincided with increases in cyclinD1, c-myc and crypt hyperplasia. Interestingly, PKCζ-catalyzed Ser-9 phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3β and not loss of wild type APC protein accounted for β-catenin accumulation and nuclear translocation in either strain. In vitro studies with Wnt2b and Wnt5a further validated the interplay between the Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB pathways, respectively. When WT or KO mice were treated with nanoparticle-encapsulated siRNA to β-catenin (si- β-Cat), almost complete loss of nuclear β-catenin coincided with concomitant decreases in CD44 and crypt hyperplasia without defects in NF-κB signaling. si-β-Cat treatment to Apc (Min/+) mice attenuated CR-induced increases in β-catenin and CD44 that halted the growth of mutated crypts without affecting NF-κB signaling. The predominant β-catenin-induced crypt proliferation was further validated in a Castaneus strain (B6.CAST.11M) that exhibited significant crypt hyperplasia despite an attenuated NF-κB signaling. Thus, β-catenin and not necessarily NF-κB regulates crypt hyperplasia in response to bacterial infection.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79432. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079432 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Citrobacter rodentium is a mucosal pathogen of mice that shares several pathogenic mechanisms with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which are two clinically important human gastrointestinal pathogens. Thus, C. rodentium has long been used as a model to understand the molecular basis of EPEC and EHEC infection in vivo. In this Review, we discuss recent studies in which C. rodentium has been used to study mucosal immunology, including the deregulation of intestinal inflammatory responses during bacteria-induced colitis and the role of the intestinal microbiota in mediating resistance to colonization by enteric pathogens. These insights should help to elucidate the roles of mucosal inflammatory responses and the microbiota in the virulence of enteric pathogens.
    Nature Reviews Microbiology 08/2014; 12(9). DOI:10.1038/nrmicro3315 · 23.57 Impact Factor
Show more