Dynamics of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Humans

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
Cell (Impact Factor: 32.24). 06/2013; 153(6):1219-27. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.002
Source: PubMed


Adult-born hippocampal neurons are important for cognitive plasticity in rodents. There is evidence for hippocampal neurogenesis in adult humans, although whether its extent is sufficient to have functional significance has been questioned. We have assessed the generation of hippocampal cells in humans by measuring the concentration of nuclear-bomb-test-derived (14)C in genomic DNA, and we present an integrated model of the cell turnover dynamics. We found that a large subpopulation of hippocampal neurons constituting one-third of the neurons is subject to exchange. In adult humans, 700 new neurons are added in each hippocampus per day, corresponding to an annual turnover of 1.75% of the neurons within the renewing fraction, with a modest decline during aging. We conclude that neurons are generated throughout adulthood and that the rates are comparable in middle-aged humans and mice, suggesting that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to human brain function.

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    • "Using this approach they found that neurogenesis occurs at significant levels through adulthood and until old age suggesting that neurogenesis might contribute to human brain function (Spalding et al., 2013). Progenitor cells do not receive glutamatergic innervation New neurons continuously generated from NSCs follow a precise developmental pathway with distinct intrinsic and synaptic characteristics compared to the surrounding mature GCs. "
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    ABSTRACT: The dentate gyrus is the entrance of the hippocampal formation and a primary target of excitatory afferents from the entorhinal cortex that carry spatial and sensory information. Mounting evidence suggests that continual adult neurogenesis contributes to appropriate processing of cortical information. The ongoing integration of adult born neurons dynamically modulates connectivity of the network, potentially contributing to dentate cognitive function. Here we review the current understanding of how glutamatergic innervation develops during the progression of adult-born neuron maturation. Summarizing the developmental stages of dentate neurogenesis, we also demonstrate that new neurons at an immature stage of maturation begin to process afferent activity from both medial and lateral entorhinal cortices. © 2015, Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
    07/2015; 10(4). DOI:10.1007/s11515-015-1362-2
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    • " hippocampus have established that neuronal number declines with age , with neuronal number in the DG least af - fected ( West and Gundersen 1990 ; West 1993 ; Simic et al . 1997 ; Harding et al . 1998 ; Korbo et al . 2004 ) . In line with this , a relative increase in the proportion of neurons in the renew - ing fraction fits the 14 C data well ( Spalding et al . 2013 ) . Within the renewing population of cells , young neurons were found to die faster , supporting the notion of a preferential loss of adult - born neurons . Establishing the turnover dynamics of hippocampal neurons , together with data on the change in neuronal numbers with age , allows the derivation of an integrated model of hippocam"
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    ABSTRACT: Adult neurogenesis appears very well conserved among mammals. It was, however, not until recently that quantitative data on the extent of this process became available in humans, largely because of methodological challenges to study this process in man. There is substantial hippocampal neurogenesis in adult humans, but humans appear unique among mammals in that there is no detectable olfactory bulb neurogenesis but continuous addition of new neurons in the striatum. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
    Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 07/2015; 7(7). DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a018994 · 8.68 Impact Factor
    • "Several decades have passed since Altman and Das [1] suggested that the mammalian adult brain is able to generate new neurons. Today, it is well-established that the adult brain of humans and other mammals generates new neurons throughout life [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. The new neurons are produced in discrete regions of the adult brain under normal conditions, the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, where new granule cells are generated, and subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, where newly generated neurons then migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb to become interneurons [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The adult brain of humans and other mammals continuously generates new neurons throughout life. However, this neurogenic capacity is limited to two brain areas, the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle. Although the DG generates new neurons, its neurogenic capacity declines with age and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Huntington's disease (HD). This review focuses on the role of newly-born neurons in cognitive processes, and discusses some of the strategies proposed in humans and animals to enhance neurogenesis and counteract age-related cognitive deficits, such as physical exercise and intake of natural products like omega-3 fatty acids, curcumin andflavanols.
    Current topics in medicinal chemistry 06/2015; 15(21). DOI:10.2174/1568026615666150610141524 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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