Trimethyl chitosan and its applications in drug delivery. J Mater Sci Mater Med

Government College of Pharmacy, Vedant Hotel Road, Usmanpura, Aurangabad, India.
Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.59). 05/2009; 20(5):1057-79. DOI: 10.1007/s10856-008-3659-z
Source: PubMed


Chitosan, a polymer obtained by deacetylation of chitin is widely studied for its pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical applications. Recommendations about uses of this polymer although could not be always realized due to limited solubility. Chitosan, for example, has been extensively evaluated for its mucoadhesive and absorption enhancement properties. The positive charge on the chitosan molecule gained by acidic environment in which it is soluble seems to be important for absorption enhancement. However chitosan is not soluble in medium except below pH 5.6. This limits its use as permeation enhancer in body compartments where pH is high. In this regard there is a need for chitosan derivatives with increased solubility, especially at neutral and basic pH values. Trimethylation of chitosan is an effort in this direction. Despite the abundance of the research related to trimethyl chitosan (TMC), the overview of the topic is not available. Hence an attempt is made in this review to cover the recent findings pertaining to synthesis, characterization and applications of TMC especially in pharmaceutical field. TMC has been synthesized by different ways and characterized by FTIR, NMR, DSC etc. This quaternized derivative of chitosan possesses a positive charge and is soluble over a wide range of pH. TMC, being a derivative of cationic polymer enriched with positive charge shows better mucoadhesive, permeation enhancement, drug delivery and DNA delivery properties. TMC can be further derivitized or grafted for modulating properties as solubility, cytotoxicity or cell recognition ability. Apart from these applications, TMC itself and its derivatives exhibit antimicrobial properties also. Quaternization of chitosan not only with methyl group but higher group as ethyl or along with spacer or quaternization of modified chitosan can be of interest too.

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Available from: Nazma Inamdar,
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    • "Methylation of chitosan is a useful approach to improve M a n u s c r i p t 5 the solubility and biocompatibility of chitosan [23] [24]. TMC, a water-soluble compound, can form nanocomplexes with anionic nanomaterial such as Fe 3 O 4 and Au (gold) nanoparticles through electrostatic forces interactions [23] [24]. Fe 3 O 4 /TMC/Au nanocomposite, inheriting the superior signaling ability of Au and magnetic separation property of magnetic nanoparticles has been synthesized in our laboratory. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A novel chip format sandwich electrochemical immunoassay was developed for ultrasensitive detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) using Fe3O4/N-trimethyl chitosan/gold (Fe3O4/TMC/Au) nanocomposite as a tracing tag to label anti-EGFR VHH antibody (or nanobody) and polythiophene (PT) as immobilization platform. The EGFR is considered as an important biomarker because its overexpression is commonly observed in many aggressive cancer types. The nano-immunoassay (combination of nanocomposite and nanobody) was performed on a commercial screen-printed platinum electrode and provided sensitivity within femtogram/milliliter levels of soluble EGFR in 25 μL samples. Furthermore, the study of long-term stability demonstrated the acceptable efficiency of this nanoimmunosensor for more than eight weeks. Apart from demonstration of using nanobodies for nano-electrochemical based immunoassays, the extremely low and clinically relevant detection limits of EGFR demonstrate the direct applicability of this nanoimmunosensor to fast and sensitive biomarker detection in clinical diagnostics.
    Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 07/2015; 220(-):1311-1319. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2015.07.021 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "To address this weakness, a partially quaternized chitosan derivative, known as N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC), was synthesized and evaluated at different degrees of substitution as a safe and efficient permeation enhancer in vitro [18] [19] [20] [21]. TMC shows mucoadhesive characteristic and enhanced absorption effects even at neutral pH due to its permanent cationic charge and good water solubility over a wide pH range [17] [18]. Therefore, niosomal nanocarriers coated with TMC can be a viable candidate for oral delivery of proteins and peptide drugs as they are able to overcome some of the inherent limitations related to these molecules [22] [23] [24] [25] [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study reports the development of a highly stable niosomal nanostructure based on Span 60/cholesterol (CH)/N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) system and its potential application for oral delivery of insulin. Insulin loaded niosomes were prepared by reversed-phase evaporation and TMC coating was performed by incubation of niosomal suspensions with TMC solution. The efficiency of nanoparticulate delivery system in enhancement of insulin permeation was evaluated by Caco-2 cell monolayer as intestinal membrane models. The prepared niosomes were characterized for entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size, zeta potential and stability. The particles were between 100 and 180 nm in diameter, and theywere stable for over 60 days at 4 °C. Insulin permeability through Caco-2 cell monolayer was enhanced 4-fold by niosomal nanoparticles, compared with insulin alone. Further work is demanded to optimize this formulation with the object of maximizing its potential to facilitate oral delivery of insulin.
    Materials Science and Engineering C 10/2014; 46(1):333-340. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2014.10.070 · 3.09 Impact Factor
    • "These derivatives have, in contrast to chitosan, a permanent positive charge and a good solubility in pure water. In addition, they are already known as antimicrobial agents used for biomedical applications and drug delivery (Mourya and Inamdar 2009; Sahni et al. 2008). From this perspective, they are interesting materials to be used for the functionalization of cellulose. "
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    ABSTRACT: This investigation describes the interaction of trimethyl chitosans (TMCs) with surfaces of cellulose thin films. The irreversible deposition/adsorption of TMCs with different degrees of cationization was studied with regards to the salt concentration and pH. As substrates, cellulose thin films were prepared by spin coating from trimethylsilyl cellulose and subsequent regeneration to pure cellulose. The pH-dependent zeta potential of cellulose thin films and the charge of TMCs were determined by streaming potential and potentiometric charge titration methods. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring was further used as a nanogram sensitive balance to detect the amount of deposited TMCs and the swelling of the bound layers. The morphology of the coatings was additionally characterized by atomic force microscopy and related to the adsorption results. A lower degree of cationization leads to higher amounts of deposited TMCs at all salt concentrations. Higher amounts of salt increase the deposition of TMCs. Protonation of primary amino groups results in the immobilization of less material at lower pH values. The results from this work can further be extended to the modification of regenerated cellulosic materials to obtain surfaces, with amino- and trimethylammonium moieties.
    Cellulose 08/2014; 21(4):2315-2325. DOI:10.1007/s10570-014-0267-6 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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