Article

Trimethyl chitosan and its applications in drug delivery.

Government College of Pharmacy, Vedant Hotel Road, Usmanpura, Aurangabad, India.
Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.38). 01/2009; 20(5):1057-79. DOI: 10.1007/s10856-008-3659-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chitosan, a polymer obtained by deacetylation of chitin is widely studied for its pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical applications. Recommendations about uses of this polymer although could not be always realized due to limited solubility. Chitosan, for example, has been extensively evaluated for its mucoadhesive and absorption enhancement properties. The positive charge on the chitosan molecule gained by acidic environment in which it is soluble seems to be important for absorption enhancement. However chitosan is not soluble in medium except below pH 5.6. This limits its use as permeation enhancer in body compartments where pH is high. In this regard there is a need for chitosan derivatives with increased solubility, especially at neutral and basic pH values. Trimethylation of chitosan is an effort in this direction. Despite the abundance of the research related to trimethyl chitosan (TMC), the overview of the topic is not available. Hence an attempt is made in this review to cover the recent findings pertaining to synthesis, characterization and applications of TMC especially in pharmaceutical field. TMC has been synthesized by different ways and characterized by FTIR, NMR, DSC etc. This quaternized derivative of chitosan possesses a positive charge and is soluble over a wide range of pH. TMC, being a derivative of cationic polymer enriched with positive charge shows better mucoadhesive, permeation enhancement, drug delivery and DNA delivery properties. TMC can be further derivitized or grafted for modulating properties as solubility, cytotoxicity or cell recognition ability. Apart from these applications, TMC itself and its derivatives exhibit antimicrobial properties also. Quaternization of chitosan not only with methyl group but higher group as ethyl or along with spacer or quaternization of modified chitosan can be of interest too.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Nazma Inamdar, Jun 18, 2015
4 Followers
 · 
296 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study reports the development of a highly stable niosomal nanostructure based on Span 60/cholesterol (CH)/N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) system and its potential application for oral delivery of insulin. Insulin loaded niosomes were prepared by reversed-phase evaporation and TMC coating was performed by incubation of niosomal suspensions with TMC solution. The efficiency of nanoparticulate delivery system in enhancement of insulin permeation was evaluated by Caco-2 cell monolayer as intestinal membrane models. The prepared niosomes were characterized for entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size, zeta potential and stability. The particles were between 100 and 180 nm in diameter, and theywere stable for over 60 days at 4 °C. Insulin permeability through Caco-2 cell monolayer was enhanced 4-fold by niosomal nanoparticles, compared with insulin alone. Further work is demanded to optimize this formulation with the object of maximizing its potential to facilitate oral delivery of insulin.
    Materials Science and Engineering C 10/2014; 46(1):333-340. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2014.10.070 · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Total of 3 water-soluble quaternary-based chitin/chitosan derivatives, which have an identical molecular weight and anion, were synthesized and characterized. Their antibacterial activities against Salmonella cholerae-suis and Bacillus subtilis were evaluated in vitro. The polysaccharides exhibited the antibacterial efficiency. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values vary from 0.02 to 20.48 mg/mL, and their minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values vary from 0.08 to 40.96 mg/mL against S. cholerae-suis and B. subtilis, respectively. Futhermore, the extent of Bacillus subtilis cells damage was examined via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to show how N,N,N-trimethylchitosan (TMC) gradually destroyed and killed B. subtilis cells when they were treated with TMC. One of those quaternary polymers, O-([2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium])propyl chitin (OHT-chitin), which can be directly and easily synthesized from chitin in bulk quantities, also was demonstrated its antibacterial activity. These water soluble quaternary-based chitin/chitosan derivatives that have antibacterial effect should be potentially used as antimicrobial agents in many fields. Practical Application:  The main practical application behind the investigation and evaluation antibacterial activity of 3 water-soluble quaternary-based chitin/chitosan derivatives could be potentially used as antimicrobial agents in many fields. These polysaccharides represent a renewable source of natural biodegradable polymers and meet with the emergence of more and more food safe problems.
    Journal of Food Science 01/2013; 78(1):M90-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02999.x · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peptide therapeutics (PTs) is generally regarded as highly effective macromolecule therapeutics at very low concentrations. The main issues surrounding the administration of PTs is guaranteeing that they are bioavailable, reach the desired therapeutic index and distribute throughout the body effectively. The oral administration, a non-invasive route, of PTs is considered a major complication due to inadequate oral absorption through biological membranes such as the small intestine epithelium due to presystemic proteolytic enzymatic activity. PTs bioavailability is further diminished in the systemic circulation due to low stability in the plasma and rapid excretion from the body. Many alternative routes can be considered non-invasive such as transdermal and nasal routes, but this review focuses on the oral route, specifically the small intestine region of the gastrointestinal tract. Although this region has the highest density of proteolytic enzymes, it contains tight junctions which have the lowest trans-epithelial electrical resistance throughout the body; thus paracellular transport of these large PTs can be achieved more readily. The use of a natural polysaccharide polymer, such as trimethyl chitosan (TMC), which enhances the bioavailability of these PTs through the small intestine, will also be discussed in great detail. TMC has been considered because it could potentially solve many of the mechanistic and chemical problems associated with oral therapeutic peptide administration. The safety of orally administered PTs through the small intestinal epithelium employing a polymer such as TMC is also discussed as this is a significant issue for regulatory bodies.
    International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics 04/2012; 18(3). DOI:10.1007/s10989-012-9299-7 · 0.83 Impact Factor