Potentiation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated TDP-43 aggregation by the proteasome-targeting factor, ubiquilin 1.
ABSTRACT TDP-43 (43-kDa TAR DNA-binding domain protein) is a major constituent of ubiquitin-positive cytoplasmic aggregates present in neurons of patients with fronto-temporal lobular dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The pathologic significance of TDP-43 aggregation is not known; however, dominant mutations in TDP-43 cause a subset of ALS cases, suggesting that misfolding and/or altered trafficking of TDP-43 is relevant to the disease process. Here, we show that the presenilin-binding protein ubiquilin 1 (UBQLN) plays a role in TDP-43 aggregation. TDP-43 interacted with UBQLN both in yeast and in vitro, and the carboxyl-terminal ubiquitin-associated domain of UBQLN was both necessary and sufficient for binding to polyubiquitylated forms of TDP-43. Overexpression of UBQLN recruited TDP-43 to detergent-resistant cytoplasmic aggregates that colocalized with the autophagosomal marker, LC3. UBQLN-dependent aggregation required the UBQLN UBA domain, was mediated by non-overlapping regions of TDP-43, and was abrogated by a mutation in UBQLN previously linked to Alzheimer disease. Four ALS-associated alleles of TDP-43 also coaggregated with UBQLN, and the extent of aggregation correlated with in vitro UBQLN binding affinity. Our findings suggest that UBQLN is a polyubiquitin-TDP-43 cochaperone that mediates the autophagosomal delivery and/or proteasome targeting of TDP-43 aggregates.
- SourceAvailable from: Emanuele Buratti[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: TDP-43 nuclear protein is involved in several major neurodegenerative diseases that include frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin (FTLD-U) bodies and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As a consequence, the role played by this protein in both normal and diseased cellular metabolism has come under very close scrutiny. In the neuronal tissues of affected individuals TDP-43 undergoes aberrant localization to the cytoplasm to form insoluble aggregates. Furthermore, it is subject to degradation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation. Understanding the pathways that lead to these changes will be crucial to define the functional role played by this protein in disease. Several recent biochemical and molecular studies have provided new information regarding the potential physiological consequences of these modifications. Moreover, the discovery of TDP-43 mutations associated with disease in a limited number of cases and the data from existing animal models have strengthened the proposed links between this protein and disease. In this review we will discuss the available data regarding the biochemical and functional changes that transform the wild-type endogenous TDP-43 in its pathological form. Furthermore, we will concentrate on examining the potential pathological mechanisms mediated by TDP-43 in different gain- versus loss-of-function scenarios. In the near future, this knowledge will hopefully increase our knowledge on disease progression and development. Moreover, it will allow the design of innovative therapeutic strategies for these pathologies based on the specific molecular defects causing the disease.Advances in genetics 02/2009; 66:1-34. · 4.85 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is present in the cytosol, nucleus, peroxisomes and mitochondrial intermembrane space of human cells. More than 114 variants of human SOD1 have been linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. Although the ultimate mechanisms underlying SOD1-mediated cytotoxicity are largely unknown, SOD1 aggregates have been strongly implicated as a common feature in ALS. This study examined the mechanism for the formation of SOD1 aggregates in vitro as well as the nature of its cytotoxicity. The aggregation propensity of SOD1 species was investigated using techniques ranging from circular dichroism spectroscopy to fluorescence dye binding methods, as well as electron microscopic imaging. The aggregation of SOD1 appears to be related to its structural instability. The demetallated (apo)-SOD1 and aggregated SOD1 species, with structurally disordered regions, readily undergo aggregation in the presence of lipid molecules, whereas metallated (holo)-SOD1 does not. The majority of aggregated SOD1s that are induced by lipid molecules have an amorphous morphology and exhibit significant cytotoxicity. The lipid binding propensity of SOD1 was found to be closely related to the changes in surface hydrophobicity of the proteins, even at very low levels, which induced further binding and assembly with lipid molecules. These findings suggest that lipid molecules induce SOD1 aggregation under physiological conditions and exert cytotoxicity, and might provide a possible mechanism for the pathogenesis of ALS.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2011; 1812(1):41-8. · 4.66 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of large motor neurons in the cerebral cortex and spinal cord (Tandan and Bradley, 1985). Dysfunction and death of these cell populations lead to progressive muscle weakness, atrophy, fasciculations, spasticity and ultimately, paralysis and death usually within 3 to 5 years after disease onset (Mulder, 1982). The estimated worldwide incidence for this disease is around 2 per 100,000 in the general population and the life-long risk to develop ALS is approximately 1:2000. The disease occurs in sporadic (90%) and familial forms (10%) (Gros-Louis, et al., 2006). With the exception of few FALS cases in which other neurodegenerative disorders can simultaneously occur, FALS and SALS are clinically indistinguishable. To date, mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene have remained the major known genetic causes associated with ALS. However, the mechanism whereby mutant SOD1 causes specific degeneration of motor neurons remains unclear. Nonetheless, many neuronal death pathways have been revealed through studies with transgenic mice expressing SOD1 mutants. Other vertebrate, invertebrate and in vitro models of ALS have also been described. Here, we will review various animal and cellular models that have been used to study the toxicity of ALS-linked gene mutations and also to investigate pathological hallmarks of the disease.01/2012: pages 81-124; , ISBN: 978-953-307-806-9