SARS-CoV proteins decrease levels and activity of human ENaC via activation of distinct PKC isoforms
ABSTRACT Among the multiple organ disorders caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), acute lung failure following atypical pneumonia is the most serious and often fatal event. We hypothesized that two of the hydrophilic structural coronoviral proteins (S and E) would regulate alveolar fluid clearance by decreasing the cell surface expression and activity of amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium (Na(+)) channels (ENaC), the rate-limiting protein in transepithelial Na(+) vectorial transport across distal lung epithelial cells. Coexpression of either S or E protein with human alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC in Xenopus oocytes led to significant decreases of both amiloride-sensitive Na(+) currents and gamma-ENaC protein levels at their plasma membranes. S and E proteins decreased the rate of ENaC exocytosis and either had no effect (S) or decreased (E) rates of endocytosis. No direct interactions among SARS-CoV E protein with either alpha- or gamma-ENaC were indentified. Instead, the downregulation of ENaC activity by SARS proteins was partially or completely restored by administration of inhibitors of PKCalpha/beta1 and PKCzeta. Consistent with the whole cell data, expression of S and E proteins decreased ENaC single-channel activity in oocytes, and these effects were partially abrogated by PKCalpha/beta1 inhibitors. Finally, transfection of human airway epithelial (H441) cells with SARS E protein decreased whole cell amiloride-sensitive currents. These findings indicate that lung edema in SARS infection may be due at least in part to activation of PKC by SARS proteins, leading to decreasing levels and activity of ENaC at the apical surfaces of lung epithelial cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Michael Kashon[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is overexpressed in patients with inflammatory lung diseases, including virus infections. Airway surface liquid (ASL), which is regulated by epithelial cell ion transport, is essential for normal lung function. No information is available regarding the effect of NGF on ion transport of airway epithelium. To investigate whether NGF can affect ion transport, human primary air-interface cultured epithelial cells were placed in Ussing chambers to obtain transepithelial voltage (−7.1 ± 3.4 mV), short-circuit current (Isc, 5.9 ± 1.0 μA), and transepithelial resistance (750 Ω·cm2), and to measure responses to ion transport inhibitors. Amiloride (apical, 3.5 × 10−5 mol/L) decreased Isc by 55.3%. Apically applied NGF (1 ng/mL) reduced Isc by 5.3% in 5 min; basolaterally applied NGF had no effect. The response to amiloride was reduced (41.6%) in the presence of NGF. K-252a (10 nmol/L, apical) did not itself affect Na+ transport, but it attenuated the NGF-induced reduction in Na+ transport, indicating the participation of the trkA receptor in the NGF-induced reduction in Na+ transport. PD-98059 (30 μmol/L, apical and basolateral) did not itself affect Na+ transport, but attenuated the NGF-induced reduction in Na+ transport, indicating that trkA activated the Erk 1/2 signaling cascade. NGF stimulated phosphorylation of Erk 1/2 and the β-subunit of ENaC. K-252a and PD-98059 inhibited these responses. NGF had no effect on Isc in the presence of apical nystatin (50 μmol/L). These results indicate that NGF inhibits Na+ transport through a trkA-Erk 1/2-activated signaling pathway linked to ENaC phosphorylation.07/2014; 2(7). DOI:10.14814/phy2.12073
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) envelope (E) protein is a transmembrane protein. Several subcellular locations and topological conformations of E protein have been proposed. To identify the correct ones, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the amino or the carboxy terminus of E protein, respectively, were generated. E protein was mainly found in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) of cells transfected with a plasmid encoding E protein or infected with SARS-CoV. No evidence of E protein presence in the plasma membrane was found by using immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy and cell surface protein labeling. In addition, measurement of plasma membrane voltage gated ion channel activity by whole-cell patch clamp suggested that E protein was not present in the plasma membrane. A topological conformation in which SARS-CoV E protein amino terminus is oriented towards the lumen of intracellular membranes and carboxy terminus faces cell cytoplasm is proposed.Virology 07/2011; 415(2):69-82. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2011.03.029 · 3.28 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Determining the role of NADPH oxidases in the context of virus infection is an emerging area of research and our knowledge is still sparse. The expression of various isoforms of NOX/DUOX (NADPH oxidase/dual oxidase) in the epithelial cells (ECs) lining the respiratory tract renders them primary sites from which to orchestrate the host defence against respiratory viruses. Accumulating evidence reveals distinct facets of the involvement of NOX/DUOX in host antiviral and pro-inflammatory responses and in the control of the epithelial barrier integrity, with individual isoforms mediating co-operative, but surprisingly also opposing, functions. Although in vivo studies in mice are in line with some of these observations, a complete understanding of the specific functions of epithelial NOX/DUOX awaits lung epithelial-specific conditional knockout mice. The goal of the present review is to summarize our current knowledge of the role of individual NOX/DUOX isoforms expressed in the lung epithelium in the context of respiratory virus infections so as to highlight potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention.Clinical Science 03/2015; 128(6):337-47. DOI:10.1042/CS20140321 · 5.63 Impact Factor