An Open Trial of Relapse Prevention Therapy for Smokers With Schizophrenia
ABSTRACT Following successful smoking cessation, smokers with schizophrenia are vulnerable to relapse shortly after treatment discontinuation. Our objective was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a 12-month relapse prevention intervention in recently abstinent smokers with schizophrenia.
Adult outpatient smokers with schizophrenia received weekly cognitive behavioral therapy groups, bupropion slow release, transdermal nicotine patch, and nicotine gum or lozenge for three months. Subjects with seven-day point prevalence abstinence at month 3 received an additional 12 months (months 4-15) of therapy with bupropion, transdermal nicotine patch, and nicotine gum/lozenge in conjunction with relapse prevention-based cognitive behavioral therapy groups that were held weekly in month 4, biweekly in months 5-6, and monthly in months 7-15.
Seventeen of 41 participants (41.5%) attained biochemically verified self-report of seven-day point prevalence abstinence at the end of three months of treatment and entered relapse prevention treatment. There was an 81% attendance rate at relapse prevention groups. At the end of the 12-month relapse prevention phase (month 15 overall), 11 of 17 (64.7%) demonstrated biochemically verified seven-day point prevalence abstinence, and 10 of 17 (58.8%) reported four-week continuous abstinence. Almost one quarter of the sample (23.5%) demonstrated long-term prolonged abstinence through the end of the trial. There were no clinically detected cases of psychiatric symptom exacerbation. One participant, who was managed as an outpatient, self-reported psychiatric symptom exacerbation in the interim period between study visits.
Extended duration smoking cessation treatment is well-tolerated and may improve smoking outcomes for recently abstinent smokers with schizophrenia. Controlled trials are warranted.
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ABSTRACT: It is estimated that more than half of those with serious mental illness smoke tobacco regularly. Standard courses of pharmacotherapeutic cessation aids improve short-term abstinence, but most who attain abstinence relapse rapidly after discontinuation of pharmacotherapy. To determine whether smokers diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disease have higher rates of prolonged tobacco abstinence with maintenance pharmacotherapy than with standard treatment. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, relapse-prevention clinical trial conducted in 10 community mental-health centers. Of 247 smokers with schizophrenia or bipolar disease recruited from March 2008-April 2012, 203 received 12-weeks' open-label varenicline and cognitive behavioral therapy and 87 met abstinence criteria to enter the relapse prevention intervention. Participants who had 2 weeks or more of continuous abstinence at week 12 of open treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive behavioral therapy and double-blind varenicline (1 mg, 2 per day) or placebo from weeks 12 to 52. Participants then discontinued study treatment and were followed up to week 76. Seven-day rate of continuous abstinence at study week 52, the end of the relapse-prevention phase, confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide. Secondary outcomes were continuous abstinence rates for weeks 12 through 64 based on biochemically verified abstinence and weeks 12 through 76, based on self-reported smoking behavior. Sixty-one participants completed the relapse-prevention phase; 26 discontinued participation (7 varenicline, 19 placebo) and were considered to have relapsed for the analyses; 18 of these had relapsed prior to dropout. At week 52, point-prevalence abstinence rates were 60% in the varenicline group (24 of 40) vs 19% (9 of 47) in the placebo group (odds ratio [OR], 6.2; 95% CI, 2.2-19.2; P < .001). From weeks 12 through 64, 45% (18 of 40) among those in the varenicline group vs 15% (7 of 47) in the placebo group were continuously abstinent (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.5-15.7; P = .004), and from weeks 12 through 76, 30% (12 of 40) in the varenicline group vs 11% (5 of 47) in the placebo group were continuously abstinent (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.02-13.6; P = .03). There were no significant treatment effects on psychiatric symptom ratings or psychiatric adverse events. Among smokers with serious mental illness who attained initial abstinence with standard treatment, maintenance pharmacotherapy with varenicline and cognitive behavioral therapy improved prolonged tobacco abstinence rates compared with cognitive behavioral therapy alone after 1 year of treatment and at 6 months after treatment discontinuation. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00621777.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2014; 311(2):145-54. DOI:10.1001/jama.2013.285113 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of substance abuse among severely mentally ill (SMI) individuals with a schizophrenia-spectrum or bipolar disorder is about three times the rate of the general population. However, few effective interventions exist to address the problem. In this paper, we evaluate recent studies of behavioral interventions for substance abuse among SMI individuals. These include cognitive–behavioral, motivational interviewing, and contingency management interventions, as well as combinations thereof. Consistent with prior systematic reviews, ours indicates that no behavioral intervention has clearly demonstrated efficacy beyond that of usual care. Unfortunately, most of the reviewed studies suffer from methodological problems that hamper detection of treatment effects. Also, it can be argued that interventions tested thus far may not be well-suited for this cognitively impaired population. A programmatic series of studies is needed to further develop and test behavioral interventions for treating substance abuse in this population.09/2014; 1(4). DOI:10.1007/s40429-014-0032-9
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ABSTRACT: Addiction to tobacco-derived nicotine remains highly prevalent in the United States, with 18% using daily, and 53% of those with serious mental illness using daily. While smokers with serious mental illness have been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies, a growing evidence base is available to guide clinicians in assisting their patients with psychiatric illness to quit smoking. The aim of this review is to present the evidence on safety and efficacy of smoking cessation interventions for those with serious mental illness. Smokers with schizophrenia spectrum disorders should receive varenicline or bupropion with or without nicotine replacement therapy in combination with behavioral treatment. Although more research is needed, preliminary evidence suggests that varenicline in combination with behavioral support is efficacious and well tolerated for smoking cessation for those with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. Controlled trials have found no evidence that in patients with serious mental illness, the use of pharmacotherapeutic cessation aids worsens psychiatric symptoms or increases the rate of psychiatric adverse events. Converging evidence indicates that a majority of smokers with serious mental illness want to quit smoking and that available pharmacotherapeutic cessation aids combined with behavioral support are both effective for, and well tolerated by, these smokers.Harvard Review of Psychiatry 03/2015; 23(2):90-8. DOI:10.1097/HRP.0000000000000063 · 2.49 Impact Factor