The prevalence of patient safety indicators and hospital-acquired conditions in patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms: Establishing standard performance measures using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database - Clinical article
ABSTRACT Object The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) patient safety indicators (PSIs) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) are metrics used to gauge the quality of health care provided by health care institutions. The PSIs and HACs are publicly reported metrics and are directly linked to reimbursement for services. To better understand the prevalence of these adverse events in hospitalized patients treated for unruptured cerebral aneurysms, the authors determined the incidence rates of PSIs and HACs among patients with a diagnosis of unruptured aneurysm in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. Methods The NIS, part of the AHRQ's Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, was queried for all hospitalizations between 2002 and 2010 involving coiling or clipping of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. The incidence rate for each PSI and HAC was determined by searching the hospital records for ICD-9 codes. The SAS statistical software package was used to calculate incidences and perform multivariate analyses to determine the effects of patient variables on the probability of each indicator developing. Results There were 54,589 hospitalizations involving unruptured cerebral aneurysms in the NIS database for the years 2002-2010; 8314 patients (15.2%) underwent surgical clipping and 9916 (18.2%) were treated with endovascular coiling. One thousand four hundred ninety-two PSI and HAC events occurred among the 8314 patients treated with clipping; at least 1 PSI or HAC occurred in 14.6% of these patients. There were 1353 PSI and HAC events among the 9916 patients treated with coiling; at least 1 PSI or HAC occurred in 10.9% of these patients. Age, sex, and comorbidities had statistically significant associations with an adverse event. Compared with the patients having no adverse event, those having at least 1 PSI during their hospitalizations had significantly longer hospital stays (p < 0.0001), higher hospital costs (p < 0.0001), and higher mortality rates (p < 0.0001). Conclusions These results estimate baseline national rates of PSIs and HACs in patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms. These data may be used to gauge individual institutional quality of care and patient safety metrics in comparison with national data.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with cerebrovascular disease undergo complex surgical procedures, often requiring prolonged inpatient hospitalization. Prior studies have demonstrated associations between racial/demographic factors and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing cerebrovascular procedures (CVPs). The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have published a series of 11 hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) deemed "reasonably preventable" for which related costs of treatment are not reimbursed. We hypothesize that race and payer status disparities impact HAC frequency in patients undergoing CVPs and that HAC incidence is associated with length of stay and hospital costs. To assess health disparities in HACs among the cerebrovascular neurosurgical patient population. Data were collected from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2002-2010. CVPs and HACs were identified by ICD-9CM diagnostic and procedure codes. HAC incidence was evaluated according to demographics including race, payer status, and median zip code income via multivariable analysis. Secondary outcomes of interest included length of stay and resulting inpatient charges. From 2002-2010, there were 1,290,883 CVP discharges with an HAC rate of 0.5%. Significant disparities in HAC frequency existed according to ethnicity and insurance provider. Minorities and Medicaid patients had increased frequency of HACs (p<0.05), as well as prolonged length of stay and higher inpatient costs (p<0.05). HAC incidence is associated with racial and socioeconomic factors in patients who undergo CVPs. Awareness of these disparities may lead to improved processes and protocol implementation, which might help to decrease the frequency of these potentially avoidable events.Neurosurgery 03/2014; 75(1). DOI:10.1227/NEU.0000000000000352 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Object As health care administrators focus on patient safety and cost-effectiveness, methodical assessment of quality outcome measures is critical. In 2008 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) published a series of "never events" that included 11 hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) for which related costs of treatment are not reimbursed. Cerebrovascular procedures (CVPs) are complex and are often performed in patients with significant medical comorbidities. Methods This study examines the impact of patient age and medical comorbidities on the occurrence of CMS-defined HACs, as well as the effect of these factors on the length of stay (LOS) and hospitalization charges in patients undergoing common CVPs. Results The HACs occurred at a frequency of 0.49% (1.33% in the intracranial procedures and 0.33% in the carotid procedures). Falls/trauma (n = 4610, 72.3% HACs, 357 HACs per 100,000 CVPs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (n = 714, 11.2% HACs, 55 HACs per 100,000 CVPs) were the most common events. Age and the presence of ≥ 2 comorbidities were strong independent predictors of HACs (p < 0.0001). The occurrence of HACs negatively impacts both LOS and hospital costs. Patients with at least 1 HAC were 10 times more likely to have prolonged LOS (≥ 90th percentile) (p < 0.0001), and 8 times more likely to have high inpatient costs (≥ 90th percentile) (p < 0.0001) when adjusting for patient and hospital factors. Conclusions Improved quality protocols focused on individual patient characteristics might help to decrease the frequency of HACs in this high-risk population. These data suggest that risk adjustment according to underlying patient factors may be warranted when considering reimbursement for costs related to HACs in the setting of CVPs.Journal of Neurosurgery 06/2014; 121(3):1-7. DOI:10.3171/2014.4.JNS131253 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During the last two decades, there has been a shift in the United States healthcare system towards improving the quality of healthcare provided by enhancing patient safety and reducing medical errors. Unfortunately, surgical complications, patient harm events, and malpractice claims remain common in the field of neurosurgery. Many of these events are potentially avoidable. There are an increasing number of publications in the medical literature addressing cognitive errors in diagnosis and treatment and strategies for reducing such errors, however these are for the most part absent in the neurosurgical literature. The purpose of this article is to highlight the complexities of medical decision making to a neurosurgical audience, with the hope of providing insight into the biases that lead us towards error and strategies to overcome our innate cognitive deficiencies. To accomplish this goal, we review the current literature on medical errors and Just culture, explain the dual process theory of cognition, identify common cognitive errors affecting neurosurgeons in practice, review cognitive debiasing strategies, and finally provide simple methods that can be easily assimilated into neurosurgical practice to improve clinical decision making.World Neurosurgery 07/2014; 82(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2014.03.030 · 2.42 Impact Factor