[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to provide national estimates of emergency department (ED) visits for medical device-associated adverse events (MDAEs) in the pediatric population and to characterize these events further.
ED medical record reports from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program database from January 1, 2004, through December 21, 2005, were reviewed. MDAEs among pediatric patients were identified, and data were abstracted. National estimates for pediatric MDAEs were determined according to medical specialty, device category and class, injury diagnosis, and patient characteristics and outcome.
The total estimated number of pediatric MDAEs during the 24-month period was 144,799 (95% confidence interval: 113,051-183,903), involving devices from 13 medical specialties. Contact lenses accounted for most MDAEs (23%), followed by hypodermic needles (8%). The distribution of MDAEs according to medical specialty varied according to age subgroup. The most-prevalent types of injuries included contusions/abrasions, foreign-body intrusions, punctures, lacerations, and infections. The most-frequently affected body parts were the eyeball, pubic region, finger, face, and ear. The majority of pediatric MDAEs involved class II (moderate-risk) devices. The incidence of pediatric MDAEs decreased with increasing age from early to late childhood and then spiked after 10 years of age. More girls than boys were affected at older ages (16-21 years) and more boys than girls at younger ages (< or =10 years). Hospitalizations were more likely to involve invasive or implanted devices.
This study provides national estimates of pediatric MDAEs resulting in ED visits and highlights the need to develop interventions to prevent pediatric device-related injuries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hospitalized children are perceived to be increasingly medically complex, but no such trend has been documented. The objective of this study was to determine whether the proportion of pediatric inpatient use that is attributable to patients with a diagnosis of one or more complex chronic condition (CCC) has increased over time and to assess the degree to which CCC hospitalizations are associated with attributes that are consistent with heightened medical complexity.
A retrospective observational study that used the 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006 Kids Inpatient Databases examined US hospitalizations for children. Attributes of medical complexity included hospital admissions, length of stay, total charges, technology-assistance procedures, and mortality risk.
The proportion of inpatient pediatric admissions, days, and charges increased from 1997 to 2006 for any CCC and for every CCC group except hematology. CCCs accounted for 8.9% of US pediatric admissions in 1997 and 10.1% of admissions in 2006. These admissions used 22.7% to 26.1% of pediatric hospital days, used 37.1% to 40.6% of pediatric hospital charges, accounted for 41.9% to 43.2% of deaths, and (for 2006) used 73% to 92% of different forms of technology-assistance procedures. As the number of CCCs for a given admission increased, all markers of use increased.
CCC-associated hospitalizations compose an increasing proportion of inpatient care and resource use. Future research should seek to improve methods to identify the population of medically complex children, monitor their increasing inpatient use, and assess whether current systems of care are meeting their needs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we used national data to determine changes in the prevalence of hospital admissions for medically complex children over a 15-year period.
Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a component of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, was analyzed in 3-year increments from 1991 to 2005 to determine national trends in rates of hospitalization of children aged 8 days to 4 years with chronic conditions. Discharge diagnoses from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were grouped into 9 categories of complex chronic conditions (CCCs). Hospitalization rates for each of the 9 CCC categories were studied both individually and in combination. Trends of children hospitalized with 2 specific disorders, cerebral palsy (CP) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, with additional diagnoses in more than 1 CCC category were also examined.
Hospitalization rates of children with diagnoses in more than 1 CCC category increased from 83.7 per 100,000 (1991-1993) to 166 per 100 000 (2003-2005) (P[r]<.001). The hospitalization rate of children with CP plus more than 1 CCC diagnosis increased from 7.1 to 10.4 per 100 000 (P=.002), whereas the hospitalization rates of children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia plus more than 1 CCC diagnosis increased from 9.8 to 23.9 per 100,000 (P<.001).
Consistent increases in hospitalization rates were noted among children with diagnoses in multiple CCC categories, whereas hospitalization rates of children with CP alone have remained stable. The relative medical complexity of hospitalized pediatric patients has increased over the past 15 years.
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