The Structural and Energetic Basis of Carbohydrate-Aromatic Packing Interactions in Proteins.

Journal of the American Chemical Society (Impact Factor: 10.68). 06/2013; DOI: 10.1021/ja4040472
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Carbohydrate-aromatic interactions mediate many biological processes. However, the structure-energy relationships underpinning direct carbohydrate-aromatic packing in aqueous solution have been difficult to assess experimentally and remain elusive. Here, we determine the structures and folding energetics of chemically synthesized glycoproteins to quantify the contributions of the hydrophobic effect and CH-π interactions to carbohydrate-aromatic packing interactions in proteins. We find that the hydrophobic effect contributes significantly to protein-carbohydrate interactions. Interactions between carbohydrates and aromatic amino acid side chains, however, are supplemented by CH-π interactions. The strengths of experimentally determined carbohydrate-π interactions do not correlate with the electrostatic properties of the involved aromatic residues, suggesting that the electrostatic component of CH-π interactions in aqueous solution is small. Thus, tight binding of carbohydrates and aromatic residues is driven by the hydrophobic effect and CH-π interactions featuring a dominating dispersive component.

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    ABSTRACT: Carbon-based materials have attracted interest as high-performance catalysts for the aqueous-phase conversion of cellulose. The adsorption of β-glucans plays a crucial role in the catalytic performance of carbons, although the primary driving force and details of the adsorption process remain unclear. This study demonstrates that adsorption occurs at hydrophobic sites on the carbon surface and that hydrophilic groups are not involved. Analysis of adsorption temperature dependence also reveals that the entropy change associated with adsorption is positive. Our results indicate that adsorption occurs by entropically driven hydrophobic interactions in addition to CH–π hydrogen bonding. These same CH–π hydrogen bonds are also confirmed by DFT calculations. The adsorption of β-glucans on carbons is significantly stronger than the affinity between β-glucans. The adsorption equilibrium constants of β-glucans on carbons increase exponentially with increasing degrees of polymerization, which supports the theory of strong interactions between the carbon and the long β-glucans found in cellulose.
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May 28, 2014