Article

Hesperidin inhibited acetaldehyde-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Department of Chinese Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chia-Yi, Taiwan.
Toxicology Letters (Impact Factor: 3.36). 02/2009; 184(3):204-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.11.018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies have revealed that acetaldehyde-induced cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and are directly involved in hepatic tumorigenesis and metastasis. Acetaldehyde is an important substance for tumor regression. We designed this study to aid in the development of powerful anti-cancer drugs with specific tumor regression and anti-metastatic potentials. Optimal drugs should possess both specific MMP-9 enzyme and gene transcriptional activities at the molecular level. Hesperidin, a flavonoid present in fruits and vegetables, possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive activities. Hesperidin suppressed acetaldehyde-induced cell invasion and inhibited the secreted and cytosolic MMP-9 forms in HepG2 cells with acetaldehyde. Hesperidin suppressed acetaldehyde-induced MMP-9 expression through the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and AP-1, and suppressed acetaldehyde-stimulated NF-kappaB translocation into the nucleus through IkappaB inhibitory signaling pathways. Hesperidin also inhibited acetaldehyde-induced AP-1 activity by the inhibitory phosphorylation of p38 kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways. Results from our study revealed that hesperidin suppressed both acetaldehyde-activated NF-kappaB and activator protein 1 (AP-1) activity by IkappaB, JNK, and p38 signaling pathways. This resulted in the reduction of MMP-9 expression, secretion, and hepatocarcinoma cellular invasion. Our result confirmed the therapeutic potential of hesperidin an anti-metastatic and its involvement in the acetaldehyde-induced cell invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma in alcoholic patients.

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