Expression of the secondary granule proteins major basic protein 1 (MBP-1) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) is required for eosinophilopoiesis in mice
ABSTRACT Eosinophil activities are often linked with allergic diseases such as asthma and the pathologies accompanying helminth infection. These activities have been hypothesized to be mediated, in part, by the release of cationic proteins stored in the secondary granules of these granulocytes. The majority of the protein stored in these secondary granules (by mass) is major basic protein-1 (MBP-1) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPX). Unpredictably, a knockout approach targeting the genes encoding these proteins demonstrated that, unlike mice containing only a single deficiency of either MBP-1 or EPX, the absence of both granule proteins resulted in the near complete loss of peripheral blood eosinophils with no apparent impact on any other hematopoietic lineage. Moreover, the absence of MBP-1 and EPX promoted a concomitant loss of eosinophil lineage committed progenitors (EoP) in the marrow, identifying a specific blockade in eosinophilopoiesis as the causative event. Significantly, this blockade of eosinophilopoiesis is also observed in ex vivo cultures of marrow progenitors and is not rescued in vivo by adoptive bone marrow engraftment, suggesting a cell autonomous defect in marrow progenitors. These observations implicate a role for granule protein gene expression as a regulator of eosinophilopoiesis and provide another strain of mice congenitally-deficient of eosinophils.
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ABSTRACT: Developmental processes of hematopoietic cells are orchestrated by transcriptional networks. GATA-1, the founding member of the GATA family of transcription factors, has been demonstrated to play crucial roles in the differentiation of erythroid cells, magakaryocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells. However, the role of GATA-1 in basophils remains elusive. Here we show that basophils abundantly express Gata1 mRNAs, and that siRNA-mediated knockdown of Gata1 resulted in impaired production of IL-4 by basophils in response to the stimulation with IgE plus antigens. ΔdblGATA mice that carry the mutated Gata1 promoter and are widely used for functional analysis of eosinophils owing to their selective loss of eosinophils showed a decreased number of basophils with reduced expression of Gata1 mRNAs. The number of basophil progenitors in bone marrow was reduced in these mice, and the generation of basophils from their bone marrow cells in culture with IL-3 or thymic stromal lymphopoietin was impaired. ΔdblGATA basophils responded poorly ex vivo to stimulation with IgE plus antigens compared with wild-type basophils as assessed by degranulation and production of IL-4 and IL-6. Moreover, ΔdblGATA mice showed impaired responses in basophil-mediated protective immunity against intestinal helminth infection. Thus, ΔdblGATA mice showed numerical and functional aberrancy in basophils in addition to the known deficiency of eosinophils. Our findings demonstrate that GATA-1 plays a key role in the generation and function of basophils and underscore the need for careful distinction of the cell lineage responsible for each phenotype observed in ΔdblGATA mice.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2013; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1311668110 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Experimental and clinical data strongly support a role for the eosinophil in the pathogenesis of asthma, allergic and parasitic diseases, and hypereosinophilic syndromes, in addition to more recently identified immunomodulatory roles in shaping innate host defense, adaptive immunity, tissue repair/remodeling and maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis. A seminal finding was the dependence of allergic airway inflammation on eosinophil-induced recruitment of Th2-polarized effector T-cells to the lung, providing a missing link between these innate immune effectors (eosinophils) and adaptive T-cell responses. Eosinophils come equipped with preformed enzymatic and non-enzymatic cationic proteins, stored in and selectively secreted from their large secondary (specific) granules. These proteins contribute to the eosinophil's functions in airway inflammation, tissue damage and remodeling in the asthmatic diathesis. Studies using eosinophil deficient mouse models, including eosinophil-derived granule protein double knockout mice (major basic protein-1/eosinophil peroxidase dual gene deletion) show that eosinophils are required for all major hallmarks of asthma pathophysiology-airway epithelial damage and hyperreactivity, and remodeling including smooth muscle hyperplasia and subepithelial fibrosis. Here we review key molecular aspects of these eosinophil-derived granule proteins in terms of structure-function relationships to advance understanding of their roles in eosinophil cell, molecular and immunobiology in health and disease.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2014; 289(25). DOI:10.1074/jbc.R113.546218 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Asthma is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process which may lead to several changes in bone marrow cell composition. We hypothesized that bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) obtained from ovalbumin (OVA)-induced lung inflammation mice may promote different effects compared to BMMCs from healthy donors in a model of allergic asthma. Methods C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to two groups. In the OVA group, mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin, while healthy animals (control group) received saline using the same protocol. BMMCs were analyzed by flow cytometry 24 hours after the last challenge. After BMMC characterization, another group of OVA mice were further randomized into three subgroups to receive intratracheal saline (BMMC-SAL), BMMCs from control or BMMCs from OVA mice (BMMC-Control and BMMC-OVA, respectively; 2x106 cells/mouse), 24 hours after the last challenge. Results BMMC-OVA exhibited an increased percentage of eosinophils, monocytes and hematopoietic precursors, while mesenchymal stem cells decreased, as compared with BMMC-Control. BMMCs from both donor groups reduced airway resistance, alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction index, eosinophil infiltration, collagen fiber content in alveolar septa and levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, interferon-γ, transforming growth factor-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor in lung homogenates. However, the benefits of BMMCs were significantly more pronounced when cells were obtained from control donors. Conclusion Both BMMC-Control and BMMC-OVA reduced the inflammatory and remodeling processes; nevertheless, BMMC-Control led to a greater improvement in lung morphofunction, which may be due to different BMMC composition and/or properties.Stem Cell Research & Therapy 09/2014; 5(5):108. DOI:10.1186/scrt496 · 4.63 Impact Factor