Expression of the secondary granule proteins major basic protein (MBP)-1 and eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) is required for eosinophilopoiesis in mice.
ABSTRACT Eosinophil activities are often linked with allergic diseases such as asthma and the pathologies accompanying helminth infection. These activities have been hypothesized to be mediated, in part, by the release of cationic proteins stored in the secondary granules of these granulocytes. The majority of the protein stored in these secondary granules (by mass) is major basic protein-1 (MBP-1) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPX). Unpredictably, a knockout approach targeting the genes encoding these proteins demonstrated that, unlike mice containing only a single deficiency of either MBP-1 or EPX, the absence of both granule proteins resulted in the near complete loss of peripheral blood eosinophils with no apparent impact on any other hematopoietic lineage. Moreover, the absence of MBP-1 and EPX promoted a concomitant loss of eosinophil lineage committed progenitors (EoP) in the marrow, identifying a specific blockade in eosinophilopoiesis as the causative event. Significantly, this blockade of eosinophilopoiesis is also observed in ex vivo cultures of marrow progenitors and is not rescued in vivo by adoptive bone marrow engraftment, suggesting a cell autonomous defect in marrow progenitors. These observations implicate a role for granule protein gene expression as a regulator of eosinophilopoiesis and provide another strain of mice congenitally-deficient of eosinophils.
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ABSTRACT: Eosinophils are versatile cells that regulate innate and adaptive immunity, influence metabolism and tissue repair, and contribute to allergic lung disease. Within the context of immunity to parasitic worm infections, eosinophils are prominent yet highly varied in function. We have shown previously that when mice undergo primary infection with the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis, eosinophils play an important immune regulatory role that promotes larval growth and survival in skeletal muscle. In this study, we aimed to address the function of eosinophils in secondary infection with T. spiralis. By infecting eosinophil-ablated mice, we found that eosinophils are dispensable for immunity that clears adult worms or controls fecundity in secondary infection. In contrast, eosinophil ablation had a pronounced effect on secondary infection of skeletal muscle by migratory newborn larvae. Restoring eosinophils to previously infected, ablated mice caused them to limit muscle larvae burdens. Passive immunization of naive, ablated mice with sera or Ig from infected donors, together with transfer of eosinophils, served to limit the number of newborn larvae that migrated in tissue and colonized skeletal muscle. Results from these in vivo studies are consistent with earlier findings that eosinophils bind to larvae in the presence of Abs in vitro. Although our previous findings showed that eosinophils protect the parasite in primary infection, these new data show that eosinophils protect the host in secondary infection.The Journal of Immunology 01/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402219 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of eosinophils in the progression and resolution of allergic respiratory inflammation is poorly defined despite the commonality of their presence and in some cases their use as a biomarker for disease severity and/or symptom control. However, this ambiguity belies the wealth of insights that have recently been gained through the use of eosinophil-deficient/attenuated strains of mice that have demonstrated novel immunoregulatory and remodeling/repair functions for these cells in the lung following allergen provocation. Specifically, studies of eosinophil-deficient mice suggest that eosinophils contribute to events occurring in the lungs following allergen provocation at several key moments: (i) The initiating phase of events leading to Th2-polarized pulmonary inflammation, (ii) The suppression Th1/Th17 pathways in lung draining lymph nodes, (iii) The recruitment of effector Th2 T cells to the lung, and finally (iv) Mechanisms of inflammatory resolution that re-establish pulmonary homeostasis. These suggested functions have recently been confirmed and expanded upon using allergen provocation of an inducible eosinophil-deficient strain of mice (iPHIL) that demonstrated an eosinophil-dependent mechanism(s) leading to Th2 dominated immune responses in the presence of eosinophils in contrast to neutrophilic as well as mixed Th1/Th17/Th2 variant phenotypes in the absence of eosinophils. These findings highlighted that eosinophils are not exclusively downstream mediators controlled by T cells, dendritic cells (DC), and/or innate lymphocytic cells (ILC2). Instead, eosinophils appear to be more aptly described as significant contributors in complex interrelated pathways that lead to pulmonary inflammation and subsequently promote resolution and the re-establishment of homeostatic baseline. In this review we summarize and put into the context the evolving hypotheses that are now expanding our understanding of the roles eosinophils likely have in the lung following allergen provocation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Clinical & Experimental Allergy 06/2014; 44(9). DOI:10.1111/cea.12358 · 4.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Asthma is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process which may lead to several changes in bone marrow cell composition. We hypothesized that bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) obtained from ovalbumin (OVA)-induced lung inflammation mice may promote different effects compared to BMMCs from healthy donors in a model of allergic asthma. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to two groups. In the OVA group, mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin, while healthy animals (control group) received saline using the same protocol. BMMCs were analyzed by flow cytometry 24 hours after the last challenge. After BMMC characterization, another group of OVA mice were further randomized into three subgroups to receive intratracheal saline (BMMC-SAL), BMMCs from control or BMMCs from OVA mice (BMMC-Control and BMMC-OVA, respectively; 2x10(6) cells/mouse), 24 hours after the last challenge. Results: BMMC-OVA exhibited an increased percentage of eeosinophils, monocytes and hematopoietic precursors, while mesenchymal stem cells decreased, as compared with BMMC-Control. BMMCs from both donor groups reduced airway resistance, alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction index, eosinophil infiltration, collagen fiber content in alveolar septa and levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, interferon-gamma, transforming growth factor-beta, and vascular endothelial growth factor in lung homogenates. However, the benefits of BMMCs were significantly more pronounced when cells were obtained from control donors. Conclusion: Both BMMC-Control and BMMC-OVA reduced the inflammatory and remodeling processes; nevertheless, BMMC-Control led to a greater improvement in lung morphofunction, which may be due to different BMMC composition and/or properties.Stem Cell Research & Therapy 09/2014; 5(5):108. DOI:10.1186/scrt496 · 4.63 Impact Factor