Diseño, implantación y evaluación de un recurso instruccional para el aprendizaje del concepto de energía

Sapiens. Revista Universitaria de Investigación 01/2000; 1(2):0-.
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    ABSTRACT: An analysis of the conceptual structure of physics identifies essential factual and procedural knowledge which is not explicitly formulated and taught in physics courses. It leads to the conclusion that mathematical modeling of the physical world should be the central theme of physics instruction. There are reasons to believe that traditional methods for teaching physics are inefficient and substantial improvements in instruction can be achieved by a vigorous program of pedagogical research and development. I. WHO NEEDS A THEORY OF INSTRUCTION? The generally unsatisfactory outcome of instruction in introductory physics is too familiar to require documentation. Blame is usually placed on poor prior training in mathematics and science. However, cognitive research in the last decade has documented serious deficiencies in traditional physics instruction. There is reason to doubt that these deficiencies can be eliminated without extensive pedagogical research and development. Pedagogical theory is generally held in low esteem by university scientists. But their own practices show how sorely it is needed. They practice in the classroom what they would never tolerate in the laboratory. In the laboratory they are keen to understand the phenomena and critically evaluate reasonable alternative hypotheses. But their teaching is guided by unsubstantiated beliefs about students and learning which are often wrong or partial truths at best. This kind of behavior would be as disastrous in the laboratory as it is in the classroom. Why don't they evaluate their teaching practices with the same critical standards they apply to scientific research? Although deficiencies in physics instruction are most serious at the introductory level, there is no reason to believe that they are insignificant at higher levels. To be sure, some excellent physicists emerge from our graduate programs. But symptoms of a problem are easy to find in the frequent jokes and lamentations by faculty over the poor performance of graduate students, especially on oral exams where students are supposed to demonstrate a coherent understanding of their subject. The possibility that this might be a consequence of deficient instruction seems never to occur to the faculty. In the absence of evidence you can believe what you like. The fact that, with sufficient time and effort, some students learn physics in our universities should not make us complacent. The question is not whether students can learn physics, but whether instruction can be designed to help them learn it more efficiently. Most physics professors take their teaching seriously, so it seems strange that they have not promoted the kind of coherent research program to improve teaching which they know is essential to the development of physics. My purpose in this article is to discuss what is needed to get such a program started. I aim to formulate the rudiments of an instructional theory in sufficient detail to serve as a
    American Journal of Physics 01/1987; 55(5):440-454. DOI:10.1119/1.15129 · 0.80 Impact Factor


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