Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Infants Younger Than 90 Days Before and After Introduction of PCV7
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:Introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) changed the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We evaluated the changes that occurred after PCV7 introduction among Utah infants aged 1 to 90 days, too young to be fully immunized.METHODS:We identified children <18 years with culture-confirmed IPD from 1997-2010. We analyzed demographic, clinical, and serotype data for infants aged 1-90 days. The pre- and post-vaccine introduction periods spanned 1997-2000 and 2001-2010, respectively.RESULTS:Of 513 children with IPD, 36 were 1 to 90 days and accounted for 7% of IPD cases in both the pre- and post-vaccine introduction period. The pre-vaccine IPD incidence rate was 5.0 per 100 000 live births, and was unchanged in the post-vaccine introduction period. IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes decreased by 74% (from 2.2 to 0.58 per 100 000), whereas non-vaccine serotype IPD increased by 57% (from 2.8 to 4.4 per 100 000). Sixteen infants (44%) required intensive care, and 3 (8%) died. Bacteremia without focus (56%) and meningitis (44%) were the predominant syndromes in the pre- and post-vaccine introduction periods, respectively. In the post-vaccine introduction period, serotype 7F was the most common serotype among infants and was responsible for 50% of meningitis.CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of IPD in Utah infants aged 1 to 90 days caused by PCV7 serotypes decreased after PCV7 introduction, but overall incidence was unchanged. In the post-vaccine introduction period, serotype 7F predominated in this age group and was associated with meningitis.
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ABSTRACT: The importance of bacterial infections following respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains unclear. We evaluated whether variations in RSV epidemic timing and magnitude are associated with variations in pneumococcal disease epidemics and whether changes in pneumococcal disease following the introduction of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) were associated with changes in the rate of hospitalizations coded as RSV. We used data from the State Inpatient Databases (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality), including >700,000 RSV hospitalizations and >16,000 pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations in 36 states (1992/1993-2008/2009). Harmonic regression was used to estimate the timing of the average seasonal peak of RSV, pneumococcal pneumonia, and pneumococcal septicemia. We then estimated the association between the incidence of pneumococcal disease in children and the activity of RSV and influenza (where there is a well-established association) using Poisson regression models that controlled for shared seasonal variations. Finally, we estimated changes in the rate of hospitalizations coded as RSV following the introduction of PCV7. RSV and pneumococcal pneumonia shared a distinctive spatiotemporal pattern (correlation of peak timing: ρ = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.84). RSV was associated with a significant increase in the incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia in children aged <1 y (attributable percent [AP]: 20.3%, 95% CI: 17.4%, 25.1%) and among children aged 1-2 y (AP: 10.1%, 95% CI: 7.6%, 13.9%). Influenza was also associated with an increase in pneumococcal pneumonia among children aged 1-2 y (AP: 3.2%, 95% CI: 1.7%, 4.7%). Finally, we observed a significant decline in RSV-coded hospitalizations in children aged <1 y following PCV7 introduction (-18.0%, 95% CI: -22.6%, -13.1%, for 2004/2005-2008/2009 versus 1997/1998-1999/2000). This study used aggregated hospitalization data, and studies with individual-level, laboratory-confirmed data could help to confirm these findings. These analyses provide evidence for an interaction between RSV and pneumococcal pneumonia. Future work should evaluate whether treatment for secondary bacterial infections could be considered for pneumonia cases even if a child tests positive for RSV. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.PLoS Medicine 01/2015; 12(1):e1001776. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001776 · 14.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To provide a clinically relevant summary of the latest research and recommendations regarding childhood and adolescent immunizations. Childhood vaccination has dramatically reduced pediatric morbidity and mortality in the United States. Recent research on childhood and adolescent immunizations has focused on expanding the use of current vaccines for additional subpopulations as well as the development of new vaccines. In particular, data confirming the safety and immunogenicity of vaccines in various groups of children have shaped national guidelines. Furthermore, studies on vaccine uptake, cost-effectiveness, and impact of vaccination have reinforced the importance of adhering to these guidelines. More work needs to be done by providers and parents to increase vaccination coverage rates to better protect children and adolescents from these serious diseases. In this article, selected recent publications and recommendations on the following vaccines are reviewed: influenza, meningococcal conjugate, childhood and adolescent/adult formulations of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis, pneumococcal conjugate, and human papillomavirus. Research on childhood and adolescent vaccinations continues to shape future guidelines. Through this work, we can learn how to optimize the protection of all children and adolescents against vaccine-preventable diseases.Current opinion in pediatrics 04/2014; 26(3). DOI:10.1097/MOP.0000000000000093 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was introduced in the Danish childhood immunization program (at 3, 5 and 12 months of age) in 2007 and was replaced with PCV-13 in 2010 without changes to the schedule. After the introduction of these vaccines the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) due to vaccine types (VTs) declined markedly in children aged 0–2 years; however, cases among infants too young to be protected by vaccination have not been studied in detail. We present data on IPD in infants less than 90 days from 1943 until 2013. Study design The study included all infants younger than 90 days born from 1943 through 2013, who had not been PCV vaccinated and from whom a pneumococcus isolate from blood or cerebrospinal fluid had been submitted to the Danish national reference laboratory. All isolates were serotyped using Pneumotest Latex and Quellung reaction. Results A total of 216 IPD cases were identified. The age group specific incidence (total number of IPD cases per 100,000 live births) varied from 0 to 16 in the period 1943 to 2007 and from 1.7 to 9.2 in the period 2008 to 2013. IPD cases due to PCV-7 serotypes were not observed later than 2009. Conclusion In Danish infants younger than 90 days, IPD due to PCV-7 serotypes has decreased and has not been observed since 2009, but the total incidence of IPD has not changed.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106180 · 3.53 Impact Factor