Inositol pyrophosphates: between signalling and metabolism.
ABSTRACT The present review will explore the insights gained into inositol pyrophosphates in the 20 years since their discovery in 1993. These molecules are defined by the presence of the characteristic 'high energy' pyrophosphate moiety and can be found ubiquitously in eukaryotic cells. The enzymes that synthesize them are similarly well distributed and can be found encoded in any eukaryote genome. Rapid progress has been made in characterizing inositol pyrophosphate metabolism and they have been linked to a surprisingly diverse range of cellular functions. Two decades of work is now beginning to present a view of inositol pyrophosphates as fundamental, conserved and highly important agents in the regulation of cellular homoeostasis. In particular it is emerging that energy metabolism, and thus ATP production, is closely regulated by these molecules. Much of the early work on these molecules was performed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, but the development of mouse knockouts for IP6K1 and IP6K2 [IP6K is IP6 (inositol hexakisphosphate) kinase] in the last 5 years has provided very welcome tools to better understand the physiological roles of inositol pyrophosphates. Another recent innovation has been the use of gel electrophoresis to detect and purify inositol pyrophosphates. Despite the advances that have been made, many aspects of inositol pyrophosphate biology remain far from clear. By evaluating the literature, the present review hopes to promote further research in this absorbing area of biology.
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ABSTRACT: Inositol pyrophosphates are unique cellular signaling molecules with recently discovered roles in energy sensing and metabolism. Studies in eukaryotes have revealed that these compounds turn over rapidly, and thus only small amounts accumulate. Inositol pyrophosphates have not been the subject of investigation in plants even though seeds produce large amounts of their precursor, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6). Here, we report that Arabidopsis and maize InsP6 transporter mutants have elevated levels of inositol pyrophosphates in their seed, providing unequivocal identification of their presence in plant tissues. We also show that plant seeds store a little over 1% of their inositol phosphate pool as InsP7 and InsP8. Many tissues, including, seed, seedlings, roots and leaves accumulate InsP7 and InsP8, thus synthesis is not confined to tissues with high InsP6. We identified two highly similar Arabidopsis genes, AtVip1 and AtVip2, which are orthologous to the yeast and mammalian VIP kinases. Both AtVip1 and AtVip2 encode proteins capable of restoring InsP7 synthesis in yeast mutants, thus AtVip1 and AtVip2 can function as bonafide InsP6 kinases. AtVip1 and AtVip2 are differentially expressed in plant tissues, suggesting non-redundant or non-overlapping functions in plants. These results contribute to our knowledge of inositol phosphate metabolism and will lay a foundation for understanding the role of InsP7 and InsP8 in plants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.The Plant Journal 09/2014; 80(4). DOI:10.1111/tpj.12669 · 6.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In eukaryotic cells, type 4 P-type ATPases function as phospholipid flippases, which translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic leaflet to the cytoplasmic leaflet of the lipid bilayer. Flippases function in the formation of transport vesicles, but the mechanism remains unknown. Here, we isolate an arrestin-related trafficking adaptor, ART5, as a multicopy suppressor of the growth and endocytic recycling defects of flippase mutants in budding yeast. Consistent with a previous report that Art5p downregulates the inositol transporter Itr1p by endocytosis, we found that flippase mutations were also suppressed by the disruption of ITR1, as well as by depletion of inositol from the culture medium. Interestingly, inositol depletion suppressed the defects in all five flippase mutants. Inositol depletion also partially restored the formation of secretory vesicles in a flippase mutant. Inositol depletion caused changes in lipid composition, including a decrease in phosphatidylinositol and an increase in phosphatidylserine. A reduction in phosphatidylinositol levels caused by partially depleting the phosphatidylinositol synthase Pis1p also suppressed a flippase mutation. These results suggest that inositol depletion changes the lipid composition of the endosomal/TGN membranes, which results in vesicle formation from these membranes in the absence of flippases.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0120108. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120108 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The last couple of decades have seen an extraordinary transformation in our knowledge and understanding of the multifarious biological roles of inositol phospholipids. Herein I briefly consider two topics. The first is the role that recently acquired biochemical and genomic information - especially from the Archaea - has played in illuminating the possible evolutionary origins of the biological employment of inositol in lipids, and some questions that these studies raise about the 'classical' biosynthetic route to phosphatidylinositol. The second is the growing recognition of the importance in eukaryotic cells of PtdIns(3,5)P2 . PtdIns(3,5)P2 only entered our phosphoinositide consciousness quite recently, but it is speedily gathering a plethora of roles in diverse cellular processes and diseases thereof. These include: control of endolysosomal vesicular trafficking and of the activity of ion channels and pumps in the endolysosomal compartment; control of constitutive and stimulated protein traffic to and from plasma membrane subdomains; control of the nutrient and stress-sensing TORC1 pathway; and regulation of key genes in some central metabolic pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.FEBS Journal 07/2013; 280(24). DOI:10.1111/febs.12452 · 3.99 Impact Factor