The importance of exposure to human material in anatomical education: A philosophical perspective
ABSTRACT Despite reductions in the importance, time committed to, and status of anatomical education in modern medical curricula, anatomical knowledge remains a cornerstone of medicine and related professions. Anatomists are therefore presented with the challenge of delivering required levels of core anatomical knowledge in a reduced time-frame and with fewer resources. One common response to this problem is to reduce the time available for students to interact with human specimens (either via dissection or handling of prosected material). In some curricula, these sessions are replaced with didactic or problem-based approaches focussed on transmitting core anatomical concepts. Here, I propose that the adoption of philosophical principles concerning the relationship and differences between "direct experience" and "concept" provides a strong case in support of requiring students to gain significant exposure to human material. These insights support the hypothesis that direct experience of human material is required for "deep," rather than "superficial," understanding of anatomy.
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ABSTRACT: Few research articles have addressed the anatomical needs of entry-level occupational therapy students. Given this paucity of empirical evidence, there is a lack of knowledge regarding anatomical education in occupational therapy. This article will primarily serve as a retrospective look at the inclusion of anatomical education in the occupational therapy curriculum. Focusing on the historical inclusion is the first step to address the gap in existing knowledge. Examining the history of anatomy in occupational therapy provides an educational context for curricular developments and helps current anatomical educators understand the evolution of occupational therapy as a profession. Exploring the educational history also offers anatomy educators an identity, as significant contributors, in the training and preparedness of entry-level professionals while focusing on the ideals of occupational therapy. However, there is a critical need for empirical evidence of best teaching practices in occupational therapy and anatomical education. This manuscript provides a foundation and a starting point for further investigation into the anatomical competencies for entry-level occupational therapists. Anat Sci Educ. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.Anatomical Sciences Education 11/2014; 7(6). DOI:10.1002/ase.1451 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to study the effect of three-dimensional model in learning the anatomy of middle ear. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Artesh University of Medical Sciences in 3 phases in 2007: 1-preparation of three-dimensional model with reference to the Gray's Anatomy for Students (2005-1 st edition), 2-dividing medical and nursing students into 4 grouos accidentally, teaching with lecture and powerpoint slides to control groups and additional teaching with three-dimensional model to study groups, 3-taking similar pre-test and post-test exam and statistical analysis. Results: Analysis of pre-test and post-test scores in each group with t-test showed significant differences (p=0.000). There were not significant differences in respect to analysis of difference of pre-test and post-test scores between groups. Conclusion: Three-dimensional model had positive effect on anatomy learning of middle ear but it didn't cause significant difference in comparison with traditional educational method.
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ABSTRACT: The autopsy has traditionally been used as a tool in undergraduate medical education, but recent decades have seen a sharp decline in their use for teaching. This study reviewed the current status of the autopsy as a teaching tool by means of systematic review of the medical literature, and a questionnaire study involving UK medical schools. Teachers and students are in agreement that autopsy-based teaching has many potential benefits, including a deeper knowledge of basic clinical sciences, medical fallibility, end of life issues, audit and the "hidden curriculum". The reasons underlying the decline in teaching are complex, but include the decreasing autopsy rate, increasing demands on teachers' time, and confusion regarding the law in some jurisdictions. Maximal use of autopsies for teaching may be achieved by involvement of anatomical pathology technologists and trainee pathologists in teaching, the development of alternative teaching methods using the principles of the autopsy, and clarification of the law. Students gain most benefit from repeated attendance at autopsies, being taught by enthusiastic teachers, when they have been effectively prepared for the esthetic of dissection and the mortuary environment.03/2015; 6:159. DOI:10.2147/AMEP.S46669